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V4L2 API とOpenCV を使ってビデオキャプチャ

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0. 開発環境

1. はじめに

http://qiita.com/ykatsu111/items/88d477ee970eda559264にも書いたが,Imaging Source社のUSB2.0カメラをLinux対応にすると,OpenCVで直接使ってキャプチャできなくなってしまうため,代わりにV4L2を使ってキャプチャし,そのデータをOpenCVに渡してやる必要がある.
しかし,V4L2 APIなんて使ったこともないうえに,ネット上には驚くほど情報が少なかったため,ここに行ったことをメモする.

ここでは,(Imaging Source社から?)既に提供されているサンプルプログラムを改変することで,キャプチャを行う.
このサンプルプログラムでは,単純にV4L2を使用してキャプチャしたデータを,OpenCVのIplImage構造体に渡すことでキャプチャを行っている.
しかし,IplImage構造体は古いOpenCVのデータ型で,現在ではMatクラスを用いるのが一般的である.
また,このサンプルでは,カメラの露出などの設定を行っていないため,これもできるようにする.

2. OpenCVのインストール

多くの人はOpenCVをソースコードからコンパイルされていますが,最新バージョンでなくてよければ,

sudo apt-get install libopencv-dev

でできます.なんたって楽なので,ここではこの方法でOpenCVをインストールしたRaspberry Piを開発環境とします.

3. V4L2のインストール

こちらも,apt-getから行えます.

sudo apt-get install libv4l-dev

以上.

4. v4ldevice.cppを露出設定可能なものに改変

ここで改変する関数は,void init_device(int width, int height)です.
以下改変したソースコード.
説明や追加した箇所はコメントに記入.

v4ldevice.cpp
void init_device ( int width, int height, int exposure) //改変(int exposure を追加)
{
    struct v4l2_capability cap;
    struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap;
    struct v4l2_crop crop;
    struct v4l2_format fmt;
    struct v4l2_queryctrl qctl; //追加
    struct v4l2_control control; //追加
    unsigned int min;

    if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP, &cap))
    {
        if (EINVAL == errno)
        {
            fprintf(stderr,
                    "%s is no V4L2 device\n",
                    dev_name);
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
        else
        {
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_QUERYCAP");
        }
    }

    if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE))
    {
        fprintf(stderr,
                "%s is no video capture device\n",
                dev_name);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
        {
            if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_READWRITE))
            {
                fprintf(stderr,
                        "%s does not support read i/o\n",
                        dev_name);
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }
            break;
        }
        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
        {
            if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_STREAMING))
            {
                fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support streaming i/o\n",
                        dev_name);
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }
            break;
        }
    }


    /* Select video input, video standard and tune here. */


    CLEAR(cropcap);

    cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;

    if (0 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap))
    {
        crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
        crop.c = cropcap.defrect; /* reset to default */

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &crop))
        {
            switch (errno)
            {
                case EINVAL:
                    /* Cropping not supported. */
                    break;
                default:
                    /* Errors ignored. */
                    break;
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        /* Errors ignored. */
    }


    CLEAR(fmt);

    fmt.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
    if (force_format)
    {
        fmt.fmt.pix.width       = width;
        fmt.fmt.pix.height      = height;
        fmt.fmt.pix.pixelformat = V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY;
        fmt.fmt.pix.field       = V4L2_FIELD_NONE;

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_FMT, &fmt))
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_S_FMT");

        /* Note VIDIOC_S_FMT may change width and height. */
    }
    else
    {
        /* Preserve original settings as set by v4l2-ctl for example */
        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_G_FMT, &fmt))
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_G_FMT");
    }

    /* Buggy driver paranoia. */
    min = fmt.fmt.pix.width * 2;
    if (fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline < min)
        fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline = min;
    min = fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline * fmt.fmt.pix.height;
    if (fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage < min)
        fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage = min;

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
            init_read(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
            break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
            init_mmap();
            break;

        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
            init_userp(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
            break;
    }

    //ここから追加箇所

    //Exposureの設定
    /*この部分のソースコードは,
    http://v4l.videotechnology.com/dwg/v4l2.html
    の1.8. Controls にあるサンプルを参考にした.
    以下にそのサンプルの一部をコピーしておく.
    このサンプルでは明るさの設定を行っている.
    struct v4l2_queryctrl queryctrl;
    struct v4l2_control control;
    memset (&queryctrl, 0, sizeof (queryctrl));
    queryctrl.id = V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS;

    if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, &queryctrl)) {
        if (errno != EINVAL) {
                perror ("VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL");
                exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
        } else {
                printf ("V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS is not supported\n");
        }
   } else if (queryctrl.flags & V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED) {
        printf ("V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS is not supported\n");
 } else {
        memset (&control, 0, sizeof (control));
        control.id = V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS;
        control.value = queryctrl.default_value;

        if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_CTRL, &control)) {
                perror ("VIDIOC_S_CTRL");
                exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
 }
*/
    memset(&qctl, 0, sizeof(qctl));
    /*Exposureの設定で選べるIDはいくつかあり,
    https://www.linuxtv.org/downloads/legacy/video4linux/API/V4L2_API/spec-single/v4l2.html
    の1.9.6. Camera Control Reference に書いてあったものをまとめると,
    V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO    露出と彩度を自動でおこなう.
    V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_MANUAL    露出と彩度を手動で行う.
    V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_SHUTTER_PRIORITY    露出を手動で,彩度を自動で行う.
    V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_APERTURE_PRIORITY    露出を自動で,彩度を主導で行う.
    V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE    露出時間を100μ秒単位で設定する.1が1/10000秒に,10000が1秒に,100000が10秒にそれぞれ対応するる.
    ここでは,V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTEを選択する.
    */
    qctl.id = V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE; 
    if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, &qctl)) {
        if (errno != EINVAL) {
            perror("VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL");
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        } else {
            fprintf(stderr, "V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE is not surported\n");
        }
    } else if (qctl.flags & V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED) {
        fprintf(stderr, "V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE is not surported\n");
    } else {
        memset(&control, 0, sizeof(control));
        control.id = V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE;
        control.value = exposure;
        if (-1 == xioctl(id, VIDIOC_S_CTRL, &control)) {
            perror("VIDIOC_S_CTRL");
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
    }

    //ここまで追加箇所
}

5. main.cpp の作成

ここでは,bayerデータで受信したキャプチャデータをRGBに変換して,表示するまでのプログラムを示す.
また,元プログラムで使用していたIplImage構造体をMatクラスに置き換える.
なお,ここで示すプログラムは自分で書きなおした.

main.cpp
#define Esc 27

#include <opencv2/opencv.hpp>
#include <iostream>
#include "v4ldevice.h"

int main(int argc, char** args) {
    //カメラの初期化
    open_device("/dev/video0"); //ここは,PCに接続したカメラの場所を指定する.1台しか接続しない場合は,通常は0番にカメラは接続されるので,このパスとなる.
    init_device(640, 480, 300); //キャプチャするサイズと露出を指定する.

    //キャプチャの開始
    start_capturing();

    //バッファーとMatクラスの準備
    unsigned char* ImageBuffer = NULL;
    cv::Mat src(480, 640, CV_8UC1); //8-bit, 1チャンネルのMatクラスを用意する.配列のサイズはカメラ初期化で指定したものと同じサイズにするが,widthとheightが逆になるので,注意する.もしも逆にすると,表示される映像は縦に幾つか割れ目の入ったような映像となる.
    cv::Mat dst; //bayer変換後のデータを格納するMatクラスを用意する.

    cv::namedWindow("image", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
    while (true) {

        //キャプチャ
        ImageBuffer = snapFrame();
        if (ImageBuffer != NULL) {
            memcpy(src.data, ImageBuffer, src.step * src.rows); //バッファーをMatクラスに受け渡す.
            cvtColor(src, dst, CV_BayerGB2RGB); //ここがBayer変換
        } else {
            std::cerr << "no image buffer retrieved!" << std::endl;
        }
        cv::imshow("image", dst);
        if (cv::waitKey(1) == Esc) {
            cv::destroyAllWindows();
            break;
        }
    }

}

プログラムを動かすと,こんな感じでちゃんとキャプチャできました.
めでたしめでたし.
(と思ったら画像アップロードの容量制限引っかかっちゃった...)

参考になったWebページ

サンプルのコピー(おまけ)

非常に貴重なサンプルプログラムなので,コピーさせていただきました.
https://gist.github.com/TIS-Edgar/10f04501f49b6b3bf75e

main.cpp
#include <opencv2/opencv.hpp>
#include <iostream>
#include <stdio.h>
#include "v4ldevice.h"

using namespace cv;

void ShowImage(char* Name, IplImage* Img, int Attribute )
{
    cvNamedWindow(Name, Attribute );
    cvShowImage( Name, Img );
    cvWaitKey(0);
    cvDestroyWindow( Name );
}



int main ()
{

    IplImage* pOpenCVImage;
    IplImage* pColorCVImage;

    CvSize ImageSize;
    unsigned char* ImageBuffer = NULL;
    int wKey = -1;

    ImageSize.width = 640;
    ImageSize.height = 480;

    cvNamedWindow( (char*)"Camera", 1 );


    printf("Program started\n");


    pOpenCVImage = cvCreateImage(ImageSize , IPL_DEPTH_8U, 1 ); // Grayscale
    pColorCVImage = cvCreateImage(ImageSize , IPL_DEPTH_8U, 3 ); // Color image



    open_device((char*)"/dev/video0");
    init_device(ImageSize.width, ImageSize.height);


    printf("Start capturing\n");



    start_capturing();



    while(wKey == -1 )
    {
        ImageBuffer = snapFrame();

        if( ImageBuffer != NULL )
        {
            memcpy( pOpenCVImage->imageData, ImageBuffer, pOpenCVImage->imageSize);
            cvCvtColor(pOpenCVImage,pColorCVImage,CV_BayerGB2RGB); // Create a color image from the raw data

            cvShowImage( (char*)"Camera",pColorCVImage);
            wKey = cvWaitKey(10);
        }
        else
        {
            printf("No image buffer retrieved.\n");
            break;
        }
    }

    cvDestroyWindow( (char*)"Camera" );
    stop_capturing();
    uninit_device();
    close_device();

    printf("Program ended\n");

    return 0;

}
v4ldevice.cpp
/*
 *  V4L2 video capture example
 *
 *  This program can be used and distributed without restrictions.
 *
 *      This program is provided with the V4L2 API
 * see http://linuxtv.org/docs.php for more information
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>


#include <fcntl.h>              /* low-level i/o */
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

#include <linux/videodev2.h>

#define CLEAR(x) memset(&(x), 0, sizeof(x))

enum io_method
{
    IO_METHOD_READ,
    IO_METHOD_MMAP,
    IO_METHOD_USERPTR,
};

struct buffer
{
    void   *start;
    size_t  length;
};

struct v4l2_buffer buf;

char            dev_name[1024];
enum io_method   io = IO_METHOD_MMAP;
int              fd = -1;
struct buffer          *buffers;
unsigned int     n_buffers;
int              out_buf;
int              force_format = 1;
int              frame_count = 10;


void errno_exit (const char *s)
{
    fprintf(stderr, "%s error %d, %s\n", s, errno, strerror(errno));
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}


int xioctl (int fh, int request, void *arg)
{
    int r;

    do
    {
        r = ioctl(fh, request, arg);
    } while (-1 == r && EINTR == errno);

    return r;
}


int read_frame (void)
{
    //struct v4l2_buffer buf;
    unsigned int i;

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
        {
            if (-1 == read(fd, buffers[0].start, buffers[0].length))
            {
                switch (errno)
                {
                    case EAGAIN:
                        return 0;

                    case EIO:
                        /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */

                        /* fall through */

                    default:
                        errno_exit("read");
                }
            }

            break;
        }
        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
        {
            CLEAR(buf);

            buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
            buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;

            if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf))
            {
                switch (errno)
                {
                    case EAGAIN:
                        return 0;

                    case EIO:
                        /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */

                        /* fall through */

                    default:
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_DQBUF");
                }
            }

            assert(buf.index < n_buffers);



            if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
                errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
            break;
        }
        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
        {
            CLEAR(buf);

            buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
            buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;

            if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf))
            {
                switch (errno)
                {
                    case EAGAIN:
                        return 0;

                    case EIO:
                        /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */

                        /* fall through */

                    default:
                    {
                        errno_exit("VIDIOC_DQBUF");
                    }
                }
            }

            for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
            {
                if (buf.m.userptr == (unsigned long)buffers[i].start
                    && buf.length == buffers[i].length)
                    break;
            }
            assert(i < n_buffers);



            if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
            {
                errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
            }
            break;
        }
    }

    return 1;
}


unsigned char* snapFrame()
{
      //printf("Start snapFrame\n");
      for (;;)
      {
      fd_set fds;
      struct timeval tv;
      int r;

      FD_ZERO(&fds);
      FD_SET(fd, &fds);

      /* Timeout. */
      tv.tv_sec = 2;
      tv.tv_usec = 0;

      r = select(fd + 1, &fds, NULL, NULL, &tv);

      if (-1 == r)
      {
          if (EINTR == errno)
          continue;
          errno_exit("select");
      }

      if (0 == r)
      {
          fprintf(stderr, "select timeout\n");
          exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
      }

      if (read_frame())
          break;
      /* EAGAIN - continue select loop. */
      }
      //printf("End snapFrame\n");

     // v4l2_buffer* pI = ((v4l2_buffer*)buffers[buf.index].start);
      //return pI;
      return (unsigned char*)buffers[buf.index].start;

}

void stop_capturing (void)
{
    enum v4l2_buf_type type;

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
        {
            /* Nothing to do. */
            break;
        }
        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
            type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
            if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF, &type))
            {
                errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMOFF");
            }
            break;
    }
}

void start_capturing (void)
{
    unsigned int i;
    enum v4l2_buf_type type;

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
        {
            /* Nothing to do. */
            break;
        }
        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
        {
            for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
            {
                struct v4l2_buffer buf;

                CLEAR(buf);
                buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
                buf.index = i;

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
                {
                    errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
                }
            }
            type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
            if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type))
            {
                errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMON");
            }
            break;
        }
        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
        {
            for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
            {
                struct v4l2_buffer buf;

                CLEAR(buf);
                buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
                buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;
                buf.index = i;
                buf.m.userptr = (unsigned long)buffers[i].start;
                buf.length = buffers[i].length;

                if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
                {
                    errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
                }
            }
            type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
            if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type))
            {
                errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMON");
            }
            break;
        }
    }
}

void uninit_device (void)
{
    unsigned int i;

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
            free(buffers[0].start);
            break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
            for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
                if (-1 == munmap(buffers[i].start, buffers[i].length))
                    errno_exit("munmap");
            break;

        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
            for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
                free(buffers[i].start);
            break;
    }

    free(buffers);
}

void init_read (unsigned int buffer_size)
{
    buffers = (buffer*)(calloc(1, sizeof(*buffers)));

    if (!buffers)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    buffers[0].length = buffer_size;
    buffers[0].start = malloc(buffer_size);

    if (!buffers[0].start)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
}

void init_mmap (void)
{
    struct v4l2_requestbuffers req;

    CLEAR(req);

    req.count = 4;
    req.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
    req.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;

    if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req))
    {
        if (EINVAL == errno)
        {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support "
                    "memory mapping\n", dev_name);
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
        else
        {
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_REQBUFS");
        }
    }

    if (req.count < 2)                          \
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Insufficient buffer memory on %s\n",
                dev_name);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    buffers = (buffer*)calloc(req.count, sizeof(*buffers));

    if (!buffers)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < req.count; ++n_buffers)
    {
        struct v4l2_buffer buf;

        CLEAR(buf);

        buf.type        = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
        buf.memory      = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
        buf.index       = n_buffers;

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, &buf))
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_QUERYBUF");

        buffers[n_buffers].length = buf.length;
        buffers[n_buffers].start =
            mmap(NULL /* start anywhere */,
                 buf.length,
                 PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE /* required */,
                 MAP_SHARED /* recommended */,
                 fd, buf.m.offset);

        if (MAP_FAILED == buffers[n_buffers].start)
            errno_exit("mmap");
    }
}

void init_userp (unsigned int buffer_size)
{
    struct v4l2_requestbuffers req;

    CLEAR(req);

    req.count  = 4;
    req.type   = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
    req.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;

    if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req))
    {
        if (EINVAL == errno)
        {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support "
                    "user pointer i/o\n", dev_name);
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
        else
        {
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_REQBUFS");
        }
    }

    buffers = (buffer*)calloc(4, sizeof(*buffers));

    if (!buffers)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < 4; ++n_buffers)
    {
        buffers[n_buffers].length = buffer_size;
        buffers[n_buffers].start = malloc(buffer_size);

        if (!buffers[n_buffers].start)
        {
            fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
    }
}

void init_device ( int width,int height)
{
    struct v4l2_capability cap;
    struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap;
    struct v4l2_crop crop;
    struct v4l2_format fmt;
    unsigned int min;

    if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP, &cap))
    {
        if (EINVAL == errno)
        {
            fprintf(stderr,
                    "%s is no V4L2 device\n",
                    dev_name);
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
        else
        {
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_QUERYCAP");
        }
    }

    if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE))
    {
        fprintf(stderr,
                "%s is no video capture device\n",
                dev_name);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
        {
            if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_READWRITE))
            {
                fprintf(stderr,
                        "%s does not support read i/o\n",
                        dev_name);
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }
            break;
        }
        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
        {
            if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_STREAMING))
            {
                fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support streaming i/o\n",
                        dev_name);
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }
            break;
        }
    }


    /* Select video input, video standard and tune here. */


    CLEAR(cropcap);

    cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;

    if (0 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap))
    {
        crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
        crop.c = cropcap.defrect; /* reset to default */

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &crop))
        {
            switch (errno)
            {
                case EINVAL:
                    /* Cropping not supported. */
                    break;
                default:
                    /* Errors ignored. */
                    break;
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        /* Errors ignored. */
    }


    CLEAR(fmt);

    fmt.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
    if (force_format)
    {
        fmt.fmt.pix.width       = width;
        fmt.fmt.pix.height      = height;
        fmt.fmt.pix.pixelformat = V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY;
        fmt.fmt.pix.field       = V4L2_FIELD_NONE;

        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_FMT, &fmt))
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_S_FMT");

        /* Note VIDIOC_S_FMT may change width and height. */
    }
    else
    {
        /* Preserve original settings as set by v4l2-ctl for example */
        if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_G_FMT, &fmt))
            errno_exit("VIDIOC_G_FMT");
    }

    /* Buggy driver paranoia. */
    min = fmt.fmt.pix.width * 2;
    if (fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline < min)
        fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline = min;
    min = fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline * fmt.fmt.pix.height;
    if (fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage < min)
        fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage = min;

    switch (io)
    {
        case IO_METHOD_READ:
            init_read(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
            break;

        case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
            init_mmap();
            break;

        case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
            init_userp(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
            break;
    }
}

void close_device(void)
{
    if (-1 == close(fd))
        errno_exit("close");

    fd = -1;
}

void open_device(char* devicename)
{
    struct stat st;
    strcpy( dev_name,devicename);

    if (-1 == stat(dev_name, &st)) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Cannot identify '%s': %d, %s\n",
                dev_name, errno, strerror(errno));
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    if (!S_ISCHR(st.st_mode)) {
        fprintf(stderr, "%s is no device\n", dev_name);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    fd = open(dev_name, O_RDWR /* required */ | O_NONBLOCK, 0);

    if (-1 == fd) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Cannot open '%s': %d, %s\n",
                dev_name, errno, strerror(errno));
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
}
v4ldevice.h
 void open_device(char* devicename); 
 void close_device(void);
 void init_device (int width, int height );
 void init_userp (unsigned int buffer_size);
 void init_mmap (void);
 void init_read (unsigned int buffer_size);
 void uninit_device (void);
 void start_capturing (void);
 void stop_capturing (void);
 int read_frame (void);
 void errno_exit (const char *s);
 int xioctl (int fh, int request, void *arg);

 unsigned char* snapFrame();
Makefile
all: opencv-test


opencv-test: main.cpp v4ldevice.cpp
    $(CXX) -Wall -g -O0 -o opencv-test main.cpp v4ldevice.cpp $(shell pkg-config --libs-only-l opencv libv4l2)

clean:
    $(RM) *.o
    $(RM) opencv-test
ykatsu111
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