ESP8266
micropython

MicroPython で e-Paper を使ってみる。

Waveshare 社の e-Paper モジュールを ESP8266 の MicroPython で使ってみました。今回は 1.54 inch 白黒二色のものを使いました。画面解像度については今のところ定数値としており専用になっていますが、これを変更することで同社の他のサイズのものでも使えます。

epaper_1.jpg

プログラムは driver/display/ssd1306.py に倣っており、同様に使うことができます。framebuf を使えば描画機能を任せられるので、デバイス固有の初期化とデータの転送部分だけを書けば済んでしまいます。micro じゃないほうの python の Image ライブラリなどに比べると色々と機能は足りません。デバイスの機能では部分的な表示の更新も可能ですが、e-Paper の特性から省略しました。ssd1306 では SPI と I2C の両方がありますが、こちらは SPI のみのため、そのレベルでの抽象化もしていません。

# epd1in54.py
# ePaper driver for MicroPython
# 2017.10 n24bass@gmail.com

from micropython import const
import framebuf
import time

# Display resolution
EPD_WIDTH = const(200)
EPD_HEIGHT = const(200)

# EPD1IN54 commands
DRIVER_OUTPUT_CONTROL                = const(0x01)
BOOSTER_SOFT_START_CONTROL           = const(0x0C)
GATE_SCAN_START_POSITION             = const(0x0F)
DEEP_SLEEP_MODE                      = const(0x10)
DATA_ENTRY_MODE_SETTING              = const(0x11)
SW_RESET                             = const(0x12)
TEMPERATURE_SENSOR_CONTROL           = const(0x1A)
MASTER_ACTIVATION                    = const(0x20)
DISPLAY_UPDATE_CONTROL_1             = const(0x21)
DISPLAY_UPDATE_CONTROL_2             = const(0x22)
WRITE_RAM                            = const(0x24)
WRITE_VCOM_REGISTER                  = const(0x2C)
WRITE_LUT_REGISTER                   = const(0x32)
SET_DUMMY_LINE_PERIOD                = const(0x3A)
SET_GATE_TIME                        = const(0x3B)
BORDER_WAVEFORM_CONTROL              = const(0x3C)
SET_RAM_X_ADDRESS_START_END_POSITION = const(0x44)
SET_RAM_Y_ADDRESS_START_END_POSITION = const(0x45)
SET_RAM_X_ADDRESS_COUNTER            = const(0x4E)
SET_RAM_Y_ADDRESS_COUNTER            = const(0x4F)
TERMINATE_FRAME_READ_WRITE           = const(0xFF)

LUT_FULL_UPDATE = bytes([
    0x02, 0x02, 0x01, 0x11, 0x12, 0x12, 0x22, 0x22, 
    0x66, 0x69, 0x69, 0x59, 0x58, 0x99, 0x99, 0x88, 
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xF8, 0xB4, 0x13, 0x51, 
    0x35, 0x51, 0x51, 0x19, 0x01, 0x00
])

LUT_PARTIAL_UPDATE = bytes([
    0x10, 0x18, 0x18, 0x08, 0x18, 0x18, 0x08, 0x00, 
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x13, 0x14, 0x44, 0x12, 
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
])

#      ESP8266
# BUSY D2 GPIO4
# RST  D4 GPIO2
# DC   D3 GPIO0
# CS   D8 GPIO15
# CLK  D5 GPIO14 
# DO   D6 GPIO12(not used)
# DIN  D7 BPIO13


class EPD:

    def __init__(self, spi, dc, res, cs, busy):
        # SPI
        self.rate = 2 * 1024 * 1024 # 2MHz
        self.spi = spi
        # other pin
        self.dc_pin = dc
        self.reset_pin = res
        self.cs_pin = cs
        self.busy_pin = busy

        # 
        self.width = EPD_WIDTH
        self.height = EPD_HEIGHT

        # frame buffer
        self.buffer = bytearray(EPD_HEIGHT * EPD_WIDTH // 8)
        fb = framebuf.FrameBuffer(self.buffer, self.width, self.height, framebuf.MONO_HLSB)
        self.framebuf = fb
        self.fill = fb.fill
        self.pixel = fb.pixel
        self.hline = fb.hline
        self.vline = fb.vline
        self.line = fb.line
        self.rect = fb.rect
        self.fill_rect = fb.fill_rect
        self.text = fb.text
        self.scroll = fb.scroll
        self.blit = fb.blit

        self.init_display()

    def init_display(self):
        self.dc_pin.init(self.dc_pin.OUT, value=0)
        self.reset_pin.init(self.reset_pin.OUT, value=0)
        self.cs_pin.init(self.cs_pin.OUT, value=1)
        self.busy_pin.init(self.busy_pin.IN)

        self.lut = LUT_FULL_UPDATE
        self.reset()

        self.send_command(DRIVER_OUTPUT_CONTROL)
        self.send_data(bytes([(EPD_HEIGHT - 1) & 0xFF, ((EPD_HEIGHT - 1) >> 8) & 0xFF, 0x00]))

        self.send_command(BOOSTER_SOFT_START_CONTROL)
        self.send_data(bytes([0xD7, 0xD6, 0x9D]))

        self.send_command(WRITE_VCOM_REGISTER)
        self.send_data(bytes([0xA8]))        # VCOM 7C

        self.send_command(SET_DUMMY_LINE_PERIOD)
        self.send_data(bytes([0x1A]))                    # 4 dummy lines per gate

        self.send_command(SET_GATE_TIME)
        self.send_data(bytes([0x08]))                    # 2us per line

        self.send_command(DATA_ENTRY_MODE_SETTING)
        self.send_data(bytes([0x03]))                    # X increment; Y increment

        self.set_lut(self.lut) # set LUT for full or partial update


    def send_command(self, command):
        self.spi.init(baudrate=self.rate, polarity=0, phase=0)
        self.cs_pin(1)
        self.dc_pin(0)
        self.cs_pin(0)
        self.spi.write(bytes([command]))
        self.cs_pin(1)

    def send_data(self, buf):
        self.spi.init(baudrate=self.rate, polarity=0, phase=0)
        self.cs_pin(1)
        self.dc_pin(1)
        self.cs_pin(0)
        self.spi.write(buf)
        self.cs_pin(1)

    def wait_until_idle(self):
        while (self.busy_pin() == 1):
            time.sleep_ms(100)

    def reset(self):
        self.reset_pin(0)
        time.sleep_ms(200)
        self.reset_pin(1)
        time.sleep_ms(200)

    def set_lut(self, lut):
        self.lut = lut
        self.send_command(WRITE_LUT_REGISTER)
        self.send_data(self.lut)

    def show(self):
        self.set_frame_memory()
        self.display_frame()

    def set_frame_memory(self):
        self.set_memory_area(0, 0, self.width - 1, self.height - 1)
        self.set_memory_pointer(0, 0)

        self.send_command(WRITE_RAM)
        self.send_data(self.buffer)

    def display_frame(self):
        self.send_command(DISPLAY_UPDATE_CONTROL_2)
        self.send_data(bytes([0xC4]))

        self.send_command(MASTER_ACTIVATION)
        self.send_command(TERMINATE_FRAME_READ_WRITE)

        self.wait_until_idle() # busy wait

    def set_memory_area(self, x_start=0, y_start=0, x_end=EPD_WIDTH-1, y_end=EPD_HEIGHT-1):
        # x point must be the multiple of 8 or the last 3 bits will be
        self.send_command(SET_RAM_X_ADDRESS_START_END_POSITION)
        self.send_data(bytes([(x_start >> 3) & 0xFF, (x_end >> 3) & 0xFF]))

        self.send_command(SET_RAM_Y_ADDRESS_START_END_POSITION)
        self.send_data(bytes([y_start & 0xFF, (y_start >> 8) & 0xFF, y_end & 0xFF, (y_end >> 8) & 0xFF]))

    def set_memory_pointer(self, x, y):
        # x point must be the multiple of 8 or the last 3 bits will be ignored 
        self.send_command(SET_RAM_X_ADDRESS_COUNTER)
        self.send_data(bytes([(x >> 3) & 0xFF]))

        self.send_command(SET_RAM_Y_ADDRESS_COUNTER)
        self.send_data(bytes([y & 0xFF, (y >> 8) & 0xFF]))

        self.wait_until_idle()

    def sleep(self):
        self.send_command(DEEP_SLEEP_MODE)
        self.wait_until_idle()

if __name__ == "__main__":
    from machine import Pin, SPI

    spi = SPI(1)
    epd = EPD(spi, dc=Pin(0), res=Pin(2), cs=Pin(15), busy=Pin(4))
    epd.fill(0)
    epd.text('ESP8266', 0, 0)
    epd.text('Waveshare ePaper', 0, 10)
    epd.show()

参照
- https://www.waveshare.com/wiki/1.54inch_e-Paper_Module
 オフィシャル wiki のデモコードには Arduino や STM32 向けの C++ ライブラリの他に Raspberry pi 向けの Python プログラムなどもあります。
- https://github.com/n24bass/ESP8266_MicroPython_test/blob/master/epd1in54.py
github にも置いています。