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Swiftの全関数一覧 (1.2対応)

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前書

 なんだか最近は関数が熱いですね! (すっとぼけ)

 個人的に復習用の一覧が欲しかったので、コンパクトさ重視で雑にまとめました。リンクも解説もありません。ただし解説記事を見た覚えのない関数については、ごく簡単な「使い方メモ」を付けています。
 ここに書いてある内容はすべて、Xcode利用時に import Swift と書いて、Swiftのところをコマンド押しながらクリックすれば見つかります。詳しくはそちらをご覧ください。

2015.04.16 アップデート

 Swift 1.2 ですよ、プロ… プログラマーさん!

  • 廃止: countElement
  • 追加
    • flatMap <- 値を扱う / 取り出す
    • zip <- 構造体をつくる
    • isUniquelyReferenced他 <- 値を扱う / 調べる
    • unsafeUnwrap <- レガシーAPIを扱う
  • @noescape, @inline などの新機能実装を反映

メモ

  • flatMapは便利。zipは… どうなんでしょう?
  • isUniquelyReferencedは「コピーオンライトを最適化するとき超便利」だそうです
  • 参照元には「countの計算量はO(1)の場合と O(N) の場合がある」というようなことがサラっと書いてあるため注意が必要
  • 今回も「説明は読んだけど使い方が分からなかった関数」が最後にあります
  • (extend, splice の where がよく分からない)

テキストを出力する

  • 標準出力に書き込む
@inline(never) func print<T>(value: T)
@inline(never) func println<T>(value: T)
@inline(never) func println()
  • 任意の出力先に書き込む
@inline(never) func print<T, TargetStream : OutputStreamType>(value: T, inout target: TargetStream)
@inline(never) func println<T, TargetStream : OutputStreamType>(value: T, inout target: TargetStream)
  • テキストを得る
@inline(never) func toString<T>(x: T) -> String
  • ダンプする (デバッグプリントよりも仕様の勉強になる)
func dump<T>(x: T, name: String? = default, indent: Int = default, maxDepth: Int = default, maxItems: Int = default) -> T
func dump<T, TargetStream : OutputStreamType>(x: T, inout targetStream: TargetStream, name: String? = default, indent: Int = default, maxDepth: Int = default, maxItems: Int = default) -> T

デバッグする

  • 無条件で落とす
@inline(__always) func assertionFailure(_ message: @autoclosure () -> String = default, file: StaticString = default, line: UWord = default)
@noreturn func fatalError(_ message: @autoclosure () -> String = default, file: StaticString = default, line: UWord = default)
@noreturn func preconditionFailure(_ message: @autoclosure () -> String = default, file: StaticString = default, line: UWord = default)
  • クロージャがfalseを返したら落とす
func assert(condition: @autoclosure () -> Bool, _ message: @autoclosure () -> String = default, file: StaticString = default, line: UWord = default)
func precondition(condition: @autoclosure () -> Bool, _ message: @autoclosure () -> String = default, file: StaticString = default, line: UWord = default)
  • 標準出力に情報を出す
@inline(never) func debugPrint<T>(x: T)
@inline(never) func debugPrintln<T>(x: T)
  • 任意の出力先に情報を出す
@inline(never) func debugPrint<T, TargetStream : OutputStreamType>(value: T, inout target: TargetStream)
@inline(never) func debugPrintln<T, TargetStream : OutputStreamType>(x: T, inout target: TargetStream)
  • デバッグ用のテキストを得る
func toDebugString<T>(x: T) -> String

値を扱う

  • 値を入れ替える
func swap<T>(inout a: T, inout b: T)
  • ミラーを作る (?)
func reflect<T>(x: T) -> MirrorType
  • オブジェクトのライフタイムを延長しつつ関数を実行する
func withExtendedLifetime<T, Result>(x: T, f: @noescape () -> Result) -> Result
func withExtendedLifetime<T, Result>(x: T, f: @noescape T -> Result) -> Result

調べる

  • 前者が後者を含むか調べる
func contains<S : SequenceType where S.Generator.Element : Equatable>(seq: S, x: S.Generator.Element) -> Bool
func contains<S : SequenceType, L : BooleanType>(seq: S, predicate: @noescape (S.Generator.Element) -> L) -> Bool
  • 同じものが同じ順番で並んでいるか調べる
func equal<S1 : SequenceType, S2 : SequenceType where S1.Generator.Element == S1.Generator.Element, S1.Generator.Element : Equatable>(a1: S1, a2: S2) -> Bool
func equal<S1 : SequenceType, S2 : SequenceType where S1.Generator.Element == S1.Generator.Element>(a1: S1, a2: S2, isEquivalent: @noescape (S1.Generator.Element, S1.Generator.Element) -> Bool) -> Bool

  • 前者の冒頭が後者と同じか調べる
func startsWith<S0 : SequenceType, S1 : SequenceType where S0.Generator.Element == S0.Generator.Element>(s: S0, prefix: S1, isEquivalent: @noescape (S0.Generator.Element, S0.Generator.Element) -> Bool) -> Bool
func startsWith<S0 : SequenceType, S1 : SequenceType where S0.Generator.Element == S0.Generator.Element, S0.Generator.Element : Equatable>(s: S0, prefix: S1) -> Bool
  • 辞書において前者が先にあるか調べる
func lexicographicalCompare<S1 : SequenceType, S2 : SequenceType where S1.Generator.Element == S1.Generator.Element>(a1: S1, a2: S2, isOrderedBefore less: @noescape (S1.Generator.Element, S1.Generator.Element) -> Bool) -> Bool
func lexicographicalCompare<S1 : SequenceType, S2 : SequenceType where S1.Generator.Element == S1.Generator.Element, S1.Generator.Element : Comparable>(a1: S1, a2: S2) -> Bool

// 使い方メモ
lexicographicalCompare("a", "z") // -> true
lexicographicalCompare("z", "a") // -> false
// …何に使えばいいんだろう?
  • 2つのレンジに重複があるか調べる
func overlaps<I0 : IntervalType, I1 : IntervalType where I0.Bound == I0.Bound>(lhs: I0, rhs: I1) -> Bool
  • 空かどうか調べる
func isEmpty<C : CollectionType>(x: C) -> Bool
  • よそで参照されているか調べる
func isUniquelyReferenced<T : NonObjectiveCBase>(inout object: T) -> Bool
func isUniquelyReferencedNonObjC<T>(inout object: T?) -> Bool

// 使い方メモ

数える

  • 2つの引数の間を数える
  • それ以外のものを数える
func distance<T : ForwardIndexType>(start: T, end: T) -> T.Distance
func count<T : _CollectionType>(x: T) -> T.Index.Distance
  • 有効なレンジを求める
func indices<C : CollectionType>(x: C) -> Range<C.Index>

// 使い方メモ
indices("hello, world!") // -> 0..<13

取り出す

※ コメント欄参照

  • Optionalから取り出して処理する (Haskell で言えば fmap)
func map<T, U>(x: T?, f: @noescape (T) -> U) -> U?
func flatMap<T, U>(x: T?, f: @noescape (T) -> U?) -> U?
  • 1つずつ取り出して処理する
func map<C : CollectionType, T>(source: C, transform: (C.Generator.Element) -> T) -> [T]
func map<S : SequenceType, T>(source: S, transform: (S.Generator.Element) -> T) -> [T]
func flatMap<S : SequenceType, T>(source: S, transform: @noescape (S.Generator.Element) -> [T]) -> [T]
func flatMap<C : CollectionType, T>(source: C, transform: (C.Generator.Element) -> [T]) -> [T]
  • 1つずつ取り出す (数字付き)
func enumerate<Seq : SequenceType>(base: Seq) -> EnumerateSequence<Seq>

// 使い方メモ
for (n, s) in enumerate("Swift") {
    println("letter at \(n) is \(s)")
}
// 結果はこうなる
// letter at 0 is S
// letter at 1 is w
// letter at 2 is i
// letter at 3 is f
// letter at 4 is t

数値を扱う

  • 絶対値を返す
func abs<T : SignedNumberType>(x: T) -> T
  • nだけ増やす
  • nだけ増やす (上限あり)
func advance<T : ForwardIndexType>(start: T, n: T.Distance) -> T
func advance<T : ForwardIndexType>(start: T, n: T.Distance, end: T) -> T
  • 最大値を求める
func max<T : Comparable>(x: T, y: T, z: T, rest: T...) -> T
func max<T : Comparable>(x: T, y: T) -> T
func maxElement<R : SequenceType where R.Generator.Element : Comparable>(elements: R) -> R.Generator.Element
  • 最小値を求める
func min<T : Comparable>(x: T, y: T) -> T
func min<T : Comparable>(x: T, y: T, z: T, rest: T...) -> T
func minElement<R : SequenceType where R.Generator.Element : Comparable>(elements: R) -> R.Generator.Element
  • 数字のデータ型を変換する
func numericCast<T : _UnsignedIntegerType, U : _SignedIntegerType>(x: T) -> U
func numericCast<T : _SignedIntegerType, U : _UnsignedIntegerType>(x: T) -> U
func numericCast<T : _UnsignedIntegerType, U : _UnsignedIntegerType>(x: T) -> U
func numericCast<T : _SignedIntegerType, U : _SignedIntegerType>(x: T) -> U

// 使い方メモ 
// 正直よく分からない

// レガシーなAPIにありがちな引数、変換が必要でめんどくさい
func f(x: Int32) {
    println("Int32 x is \(x)")
}
func g(x: Int) {
    // Int32が必要なので、勝手にInt32にしてくれる (ようだ)
    f(numericCast(x))
}

// Int32(x) などと書かずに使える
g(10)

文字列・配列などを扱う

  • 後ろにくっつける
func extend<C : RangeReplaceableCollectionType, S : CollectionType where C.Generator.Element == C.Generator.Element>(inout x: C, newElements: S)
  • n番目に挿入する
  • n番目に継ぎ合せる
func insert<C : RangeReplaceableCollectionType>(inout x: C, newElement: C.Generator.Element, atIndex i: C.Index)
func splice<C : RangeReplaceableCollectionType, S : CollectionType where C.Generator.Element == C.Generator.Element>(inout x: C, newElements: S, atIndex i: C.Index)

// 使い方メモ

var arr = [1,2,3,4,5]

insert(&arr, 100, atIndex: 2) // -> [1, 2, 100, 3, 4, 5]
splice(&arr, [200], atIndex: 2) // -> [1, 2, 200, 100, 3, 4, 5]

切り出す

  • 先頭のモノを切り出す
  • 最後のモノを切り出す
func first<C : CollectionType>(x: C) -> C.Generator.Element?
func last<C : CollectionType where C.Index : BidirectionalIndexType>(x: C) -> C.Generator.Element?
  • 先頭から最大n個を切り出す
  • 最後から最大n個を切り出す
func prefix<S : Sliceable>(s: S, maxLength: Int) -> S.SubSlice
func suffix<S : Sliceable where S.Index : BidirectionalIndexType>(s: S, maxLength: Int) -> S.SubSlice

取り除く

  • 最初だけ取り除いたものをつくる
  • 最後だけ取り除いたものをつくる
func dropFirst<Seq : Sliceable>(s: Seq) -> Seq.SubSlice
func dropLast<S : Sliceable where S.Index : BidirectionalIndexType>(s: S) -> S.SubSlice
  • 最後のモノを取り除く
  • インデックスで取り除く
  • レンジで取り除く
  • 全て取り除く
func removeLast<C : RangeReplaceableCollectionType where C.Index : BidirectionalIndexType>(inout x: C) -> C.Generator.Element
func removeAtIndex<C : RangeReplaceableCollectionType>(inout x: C, index: C.Index) -> C.Generator.Element
func removeRange<C : RangeReplaceableCollectionType>(inout x: C, subRange: Range<C.Index>)
func removeAll<C : RangeReplaceableCollectionType>(inout x: C, keepCapacity: Bool = default)

並べ替える

  • 順番を逆にする
func reverse<C : CollectionType where C.Index : BidirectionalIndexType>(source: C) -> [C.Generator.Element]
  • ソートする
func sort<T : Comparable>(inout array: ContiguousArray<T>)
func sort<T : Comparable>(inout array: [T])
func sort<C : MutableCollectionType where C.Index : RandomAccessIndexType, C.Generator.Element : Comparable>(inout collection: C)
  • クロージャの条件でソートする
func sort<T>(inout array: ContiguousArray<T>, isOrderedBefore: (T, T) -> Bool)
func sort<T>(inout array: [T], isOrderedBefore: (T, T) -> Bool)
func sort<C : MutableCollectionType where C.Index : RandomAccessIndexType>(inout collection: C, isOrderedBefore: (C.Generator.Element, C.Generator.Element) -> Bool)
  • ソートしたものを作る
func sorted<C : SequenceType where C.Generator.Element : Comparable>(source: C) -> [C.Generator.Element]
func sorted<C : SequenceType>(source: C, isOrderedBefore: (C.Generator.Element, C.Generator.Element) -> Bool) -> [C.Generator.Element]

探す・絞り込む

  • 先頭から順番に探していき、インデックスを調べる
func find<C : CollectionType where C.Generator.Element : Equatable>(domain: C, value: C.Generator.Element) -> C.Index?
  • 配列などにフィルターをかけて絞り込む
func filter<S : SequenceType>(source: S, includeElement: (S.Generator.Element) -> Bool) -> [S.Generator.Element]

1つに減らす・区切って増やす

  • セパレーターを間に入れてつなげる
func join<C : ExtensibleCollectionType, S : SequenceType where C == C>(separator: C, elements: S) -> C
  • 要素を1つずつ処理して減らす
func reduce<S : SequenceType, U>(sequence: S, initial: U, combine: @noescape (U, S.Generator.Element) -> U) -> U
  • 該当部分で区切って配列にする
// 引数の順番が変更された
func split<S : Sliceable, R : BooleanType>(elements: S, maxSplit: Int = default, allowEmptySlices: Bool = default, #isSeparator: @noescape (S.Generator.Element) -> R) -> [S.SubSlice]

構造体をつくる

  • 等差数列みたいな構造体をつくる
func stride<T : Strideable>(from start: T, through end: T, by stride: T.Stride) -> StrideThrough<T>
func stride<T : Strideable>(from start: T, to end: T, by stride: T.Stride) -> StrideTo<T>

// 使い方メモ

// through だと100まで、toだと98まで
// これさえ作っておけば…
var srd = stride(from: 0, through: 100, by: 2).generate()

// どんどん出せるよ!
srd.next()! // -> 0
srd.next()! // -> 2
srd.next()! // -> 4
srd.next()! // -> 6
srd.next()! // -> 8
  • レイジーコレクションをつくる
func lazy<S : SequenceType>(s: S) -> LazySequence<S>
func lazy<S : CollectionType where S.Index : ForwardIndexType>(s: S) -> LazyForwardCollection<S>
func lazy<S : CollectionType where S.Index : BidirectionalIndexType>(s: S) -> LazyBidirectionalCollection<S>
func lazy<S : CollectionType where S.Index : RandomAccessIndexType>(s: S) -> LazyRandomAccessCollection<S>

//使い方メモ

// lazy() を使ってレイジーコレクション系の構造体をつくる
// つくるだけで、実際の処理はしない
let lazyMap = lazy(Array(count: 1000000, repeatedValue: 0)).map {
    num -> Int in
    return num + 10
} // -> LazyRandomAccessCollection<MapCollectionView<[Int], Int>>

// クロージャ内の処理が一度だけ行われる
lazyMap[999999] // -> 10
  • ZIPでくれる構造体をつくる
func zip<S0 : SequenceType, S1 : SequenceType>(s0: S0, s1: S1) -> Zip2<S0, S1>

//使い方メモ
// "swift zip" で検索すると「zipでくれ」のzipによるノイズが結構ひどいです
let x = [1, 2, 3]
let y = ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
var z = zip(x, y).generate()
while let v = z.next() {
    println(v.0) // -> 1 2 3
    println(v.1) // -> a b c
}

メモリーについて調べる

  • 最小アライメントを調べる
func alignof<T>(_: T.Type) -> Int
func alignofValue<T>(_: T) -> Int
  • メモリーフットプリントを調べる
func sizeof<T>(_: T.Type) -> Int
func sizeofValue<T>(_: T) -> Int
  • メモリー上の最小間隔を調べる (?)
func strideof<T>(_: T.Type) -> Int
func strideofValue<T>(_: T) -> Int

レガシーAPIを扱う

※ そこかしこに「危険」「注意」「タイプセーフが台無し」と書かれているアダルトな関数のみなさんです。

  • ポインターを得る
func unsafeAddressOf(object: AnyObject) -> UnsafePointer<Void>
  • ビット群を強引にキャストする
  • オブジェクトを強引にダウンキャストする
  • オプショナル値を強引にアンラップする
func unsafeBitCast<T, U>(x: T, _: U.Type) -> U
func unsafeDowncast<T>(x: AnyObject) -> T
@inline(__always) func unsafeUnwrap<T>(nonEmpty: T?) -> T
  • ポインターを渡してクロージャを実行する (ObjC APIに便利)
// ミュータブル
func withUnsafeMutablePointer<T, Result>(inout arg: T, body: @noescape UnsafeMutablePointer<T> -> Result) -> Result
func withUnsafeMutablePointers<A0, A1, Result>(inout arg0: A0, inout arg1: A1, body: @noescape (UnsafeMutablePointer<A0>, UnsafeMutablePointer<A1>) -> Result) -> Result
func withUnsafeMutablePointers<A0, A1, A2, Result>(inout arg0: A0, inout arg1: A1, inout arg2: A2, body: @noescape (UnsafeMutablePointer<A0>, UnsafeMutablePointer<A1>, UnsafeMutablePointer<A2>) -> Result) -> Result
// イミュータブル
func withUnsafePointer<T, Result>(inout arg: T, body: @noescape UnsafePointer<T> -> Result) -> Result
func withUnsafePointers<A0, A1, Result>(inout arg0: A0, inout arg1: A1, body: @noescape (UnsafePointer<A0>, UnsafePointer<A1>) -> Result) -> Result
func withUnsafePointers<A0, A1, A2, Result>(inout arg0: A0, inout arg1: A1, inout arg2: A2, body: @noescape (UnsafePointer<A0>, UnsafePointer<A1>, UnsafePointer<A2>) -> Result) -> Result

廃止された関数

// countに統合
func count<I : RandomAccessIndexType>(r: Range<I>) -> I.Distance
func countElements<T : _CollectionType>(x: T) -> T.Index.Distance

// 引数の順序が変更
func split<S : Sliceable, R : BooleanType>(elements: S, isSeparator: (S.Generator.Element) -> R, maxSplit: Int = default, allowEmptySlices: Bool = default) -> [S.SubSlice]

// 引数がoutput -> inout output (参照渡し) に変更
func transcode<Input : GeneratorType, Output : SinkType, InputEncoding : UnicodeCodecType, OutputEncoding : UnicodeCodecType where InputEncoding.CodeUnit == InputEncoding.CodeUnit, OutputEncoding.CodeUnit == OutputEncoding.CodeUnit>(inputEncoding: InputEncoding.Type, outputEncoding: OutputEncoding.Type, input: Input, output: Output, #stopOnError: Bool) -> (Bool)

説明を読んでも分からなかった関数

/// Returns a `CVaListPointer` built from `args` that's backed by
/// autoreleased storage.
///
/// .. Warning:: This function is best avoided in favor of
///    `withVaList`, but occasionally (i.e. in a `class` initializer) you
///    may find that the language rules don't allow you to use
///    `withVaList` as intended.
func getVaList(args: [CVarArgType]) -> CVaListPointer

/// Re-order the given `range` of `elements` and return a pivot index
/// *p*.  Postcondition: for all *i* in `range.startIndex..<`\ *p*,
/// and *j* in *p*\ `..<range.endIndex`, `less(elements[`\ *i*\ `],
/// elements[`\ *j*\ `]) && !less(elements[`\ *j*\ `], elements[`\
/// *p*\ `])`.  Only returns `range.endIndex` when `elements` is
/// empty.
/// Requires: `isOrderedBefore` is a `strict weak ordering
/// <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strict_weak_order#Strict_weak_orderings>`__
/// over `elements`.
func partition<C : MutableCollectionType where C.Index : RandomAccessIndexType>(inout elements: C, range: Range<C.Index>, isOrderedBefore: (C.Generator.Element, C.Generator.Element) -> Bool) -> C.Index

/// Re-order the given `range` of `elements` and return a pivot index
/// *p*.  Postcondition: for all *i* in `range.startIndex..<`\ *p*,
/// and *j* in *p*\ `..<range.endIndex`, `less(elements[`\ *i*\ `],
/// elements[`\ *j*\ `]) && !less(elements[`\ *j*\ `], elements[`\
/// *p*\ `])`.  Only returns `range.endIndex` when `elements` is
/// empty.
/// Requires: The less-than operator (`func <`) defined in the `Comparable`
/// conformance is a `strict weak ordering
/// <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strict_weak_order#Strict_weak_orderings>`__
/// over `elements`.
func partition<C : MutableCollectionType where C.Index : RandomAccessIndexType, C.Generator.Element : Comparable>(inout elements: C, range: Range<C.Index>) -> C.Index

/// Translate `input`, in the given `InputEncoding`, into `output`, in
/// the given `OutputEncoding`.
///
/// :param: `stopOnError` causes encoding to stop when an encoding
///   error is detected in `input`, if `true`.  Otherwise, U+FFFD
///   replacement characters are inserted for each detected error.
func transcode<Input : GeneratorType, Output : SinkType, InputEncoding : UnicodeCodecType, OutputEncoding : UnicodeCodecType where Input.Element == Input.Element, Output.Element == Output.Element>(inputEncoding: InputEncoding.Type, outputEncoding: OutputEncoding.Type, input: Input, inout output: Output, #stopOnError: Bool) -> Bool

/// Return an underestimate of the number of elements in the given
/// sequence, without consuming the sequence.  For Sequences that are
/// actually Collections, this will return countElements(x)
func underestimateCount<T : SequenceType>(x: T) -> Int

/// Invoke `f` with a C `va_list` argument derived from `builder`.
func withVaList<R>(builder: VaListBuilder, f: @noescape CVaListPointer -> R) -> R

/// Invoke `f` with a C `va_list` argument derived from `args`.
func withVaList<R>(args: [CVarArgType], f: @noescape CVaListPointer -> R) -> R
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