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現在完了形と過去形

More than 5 years have passed since last update.


おおまかなルール


補足: Is it new information or old?


Ouch! I've cut my finger!

Because this action has only just happened.


new == the fact is still alive


  • Somebody has stolen my bicycle! Now I'll have to walk home.

  • I've lost my keys! Now I can't get home.

  • She has gone to America. Now you can't see her.

Because it is affecting the present(the fact is still alive).


応用編: thatと一緒に使うとき


I heard that she would release a new album.

she would release a new albumに焦点が当たっている。

なのでSo I will make a reservation tonight.などのつながりが生じそう。

またwillがbackshiftingしてwouldになっている(これはどうも必須ではないらしい)。


I have heard that she will release a new album.

heardしたこと自体に焦点が当たっている。

なのでHave you?など、heardしたこと自体に付随するつながりが生じそう。