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xcodebuildコマンドのエラーまとめ

はじめに

私は今、iOSの個人アプリでCI/CD環境を構築している最中です。

xcodebuild コマンドをトライアンドエラーで実行しており、発生したエラーと解決策を備忘録として残します。

環境

  • OS:macOS Catalina 10.15.1
  • Xcode:11.2.1

xcodebuildコマンドのエラー

Xcodeプロジェクトが存在しない

  xcodebuild -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug build
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
Build settings from command line:
    SDKROOT = iphonesimulator13.1

xcodebuild: error: The directory {フォルダパス} does not contain an Xcode project.

##[error]Process completed with exit code 66.

原因
Xcodeプロジェクトが存在しないためです。

解決策
Xcodeプロジェクトを作成します。

ワークスペースのみ指定し、スキームを指定していない

  xcodebuild -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug -workspace {ワークスペース名} build
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
xcodebuild: error: If you specify a workspace then you must also specify a scheme.  Use -list to see the schemes in this workspace.
##[error]Process completed with exit code 64.

原因
スキームを指定していないためです。
ワークスペースを指定する場合、スキームも指定する必要があります。

解決策
-scheme {スキーム名} オプションを追加します。
※後述しますが、ワークスペースに拡張子を付けていないためエラーとなります。

ワークスペースの指定に拡張子を含めていない

  xcodebuild -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug -workspace {ワークスペース名} -scheme {スキーム名} build
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
xcodebuild: error: '{ワークスペース名}' is not a workspace file.
##[error]Process completed with exit code 66.

原因
ワークスペースの指定に拡張子を含めていないためです。

解決策
-workspace {ワークスペース名}.xcworkspace とします。

テストアクションでスキームを指定していない

  xcodebuild -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug clean test
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
Build settings from command line:
    SDKROOT = iphonesimulator13.1

xcodebuild: error: The test action requires that the name of a scheme in the project is provided using the "-scheme" option. The "-list" option can be used to find the names of the schemes in the project.
##[error]Process completed with exit code 65.

原因
スキームを指定していないためです。
テストアクションではスキームの指定が必須です。

解決策
-scheme {スキーム名} オプションを追加します。

デスティネーションを指定していない

  xcodebuild -scheme {スキーム名} -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug clean test
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
Build settings from command line:
    SDKROOT = iphonesimulator13.1

note: Using new build system

** CLEAN SUCCEEDED **

xcodebuild: error: Failed to build project {プロジェクト名} with scheme {スキーム名}.
    Reason: A build only device cannot be used to run this target.
    Recovery suggestion: No supported devices are available running a compatible version of iOS Simulator. Connect a device with a newer version of iOS Simulator in order to run your application (or choose a simulated device as the destination).
##[error]Process completed with exit code 70.

原因
(おそらく)デスティネーションを指定していないためです。

解決策
-destination '{プラットフォームなど}' オプションを追加します。
私は -destination 'platform=iOS Simulator' を指定しました。
※後述しますが、上記のデスティネーションは存在しないためエラーとなります。

デスティネーションの指定に誤りがある

  xcodebuild -scheme {スキーム名} -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug -destination 'platform=iOS Simulator' clean test
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
Build settings from command line:
    SDKROOT = iphonesimulator13.1

xcodebuild: error: Unable to find a destination matching the provided destination specifier:
        { platform:iOS Simulator }

    Missing required device specifier option.
    The device type “iOS Simulator” requires that either “name” or “id” be specified.
    Please supply either “name” or “id”.

    Available destinations for the "{スキーム名}" scheme:
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPad Air (3rd generation) }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPad Pro (9.7-inch) }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPad Pro (11-inch) }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPad Pro (12.9-inch) (3rd generation) }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPhone 8 }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPhone 8 Plus }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPhone 11 }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPhone 11 Pro }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, OS:13.1, name:iPhone 11 Pro Max }

    Ineligible destinations for the "{スキーム名}" scheme:
        { platform:iOS, id:dvtdevice-DVTiPhonePlaceholder-iphoneos:placeholder, name:Generic iOS Device }
        { platform:iOS Simulator, id:dvtdevice-DVTiOSDeviceSimulatorPlaceholder-iphonesimulator:placeholder, name:Generic iOS Simulator Device }
##[error]Process completed with exit code 70.

原因
指定したデスティネーションが存在しないためです。

解決策
指定したスキームで使えるデスティネーションを指定します。
私は -destination 'platform=iOS Simulator, name:iPhone 11 Pro Max' を指定しました。
※後述しますが、デスティネーションのフォーマットに誤りがあるためエラーとなります。

デスティネーションのフォーマットに誤りがある

  xcodebuild -scheme {スキーム名} -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug -destination 'platform=iOS Simulator, name:iPhone 11 Pro Max' clean test
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
xcodebuild: error: unreadable input ' name:iPhone 11 Pro Max' at end of value for option 'Destination'

Usage: xcodebuild [-project <projectname>] [[-target <targetname>]...|-alltargets] [-configuration <configurationname>] [-arch <architecture>]... [-sdk [<sdkname>|<sdkpath>]] [-showBuildSettings [-json]] [<buildsetting>=<value>]... [<buildaction>]...
       xcodebuild [-project <projectname>] -scheme <schemeName> [-destination <destinationspecifier>]... [-configuration <configurationname>] [-arch <architecture>]... [-sdk [<sdkname>|<sdkpath>]] [-showBuildSettings [-json]] [-showdestinations] [<buildsetting>=<value>]... [<buildaction>]...
       xcodebuild -workspace <workspacename> -scheme <schemeName> [-destination <destinationspecifier>]... [-configuration <configurationname>] [-arch <architecture>]... [-sdk [<sdkname>|<sdkpath>]] [-showBuildSettings] [-showdestinations] [<buildsetting>=<value>]... [<buildaction>]...
       xcodebuild -version [-sdk [<sdkfullpath>|<sdkname>] [-json] [<infoitem>] ]
       xcodebuild -list [[-project <projectname>]|[-workspace <workspacename>]] [-json]
       xcodebuild -showsdks [-json]
       xcodebuild -exportArchive -archivePath <xcarchivepath> [-exportPath <destinationpath>] -exportOptionsPlist <plistpath>
       xcodebuild -exportNotarizedApp -archivePath <xcarchivepath> -exportPath <destinationpath>
       xcodebuild -exportLocalizations -localizationPath <path> -project <projectname> [-exportLanguage <targetlanguage>...[-includeScreenshots]]
       xcodebuild -importLocalizations -localizationPath <path> -project <projectname>
       xcodebuild -resolvePackageDependencies [-project <projectname>|-workspace <workspacename>] -clonedSourcePackagesDirPath <path>
       xcodebuild -create-xcframework [-help] [-framework <path>] [-library <path> [-headers <path>]] -output <path>

Options:
    -usage                                                   print brief usage
    -help                                                    print complete usage
    -verbose                                                 provide additional status output
    -license                                                 show the Xcode and SDK license agreements
    -checkFirstLaunchStatus                                  Check if any First Launch tasks need to be performed
    -runFirstLaunch                                          install packages and agree to the license
    -project NAME                                            build the project NAME
    -target NAME                                             build the target NAME
    -alltargets                                              build all targets
    -workspace NAME                                          build the workspace NAME
    -scheme NAME                                             build the scheme NAME
    -configuration NAME                                      use the build configuration NAME for building each target
    -xcconfig PATH                                           apply the build settings defined in the file at PATH as overrides
    -arch ARCH                                               build each target for the architecture ARCH; this will override architectures defined in the project
    -sdk SDK                                                 use SDK as the name or path of the base SDK when building the project
    -toolchain NAME                                          use the toolchain with identifier or name NAME
    -destination DESTINATIONSPECIFIER                        use the destination described by DESTINATIONSPECIFIER (a comma-separated set of key=value pairs describing the destination to use)
    -destination-timeout TIMEOUT                             wait for TIMEOUT seconds while searching for the destination device
    -parallelizeTargets                                      build independent targets in parallel
    -jobs NUMBER                                             specify the maximum number of concurrent build operations
    -maximum-concurrent-test-device-destinations NUMBER      the maximum number of device destinations to test on concurrently
    -maximum-concurrent-test-simulator-destinations NUMBER   the maximum number of simulator destinations to test on concurrently
    -parallel-testing-enabled YES|NO                         overrides the per-target setting in the scheme
    -parallel-testing-worker-count NUMBER                    the exact number of test runners that will be spawned during parallel testing
    -maximum-parallel-testing-workers NUMBER                 the maximum number of test runners that will be spawned during parallel testing
    -dry-run                                                 do everything except actually running the commands
    -quiet                                                   do not print any output except for warnings and errors
    -hideShellScriptEnvironment                              don't show shell script environment variables in build log
    -showsdks                                                display a compact list of the installed SDKs
    -showdestinations                                        display a list of destinations
    -showTestPlans                                           display a list of test plans
    -showBuildSettings                                       display a list of build settings and values
    -list                                                    lists the targets and configurations in a project, or the schemes in a workspace
    -find-executable NAME                                    display the full path to executable NAME in the provided SDK and toolchain
    -find-library NAME                                       display the full path to library NAME in the provided SDK and toolchain
    -version                                                 display the version of Xcode; with -sdk will display info about one or all installed SDKs
    -enableAddressSanitizer YES|NO                           turn the address sanitizer on or off
    -enableThreadSanitizer YES|NO                            turn the thread sanitizer on or off
    -enableUndefinedBehaviorSanitizer YES|NO                 turn the undefined behavior sanitizer on or off
    -resultBundlePath PATH                                   specifies the directory where a result bundle describing what occurred will be placed
    -resultStreamPath PATH                                   specifies the file where a result stream will be written to (the file must already exist)
    -resultBundleVersion 3 [default]                         specifies which result bundle version should be used
    -clonedSourcePackagesDirPath PATH                        specifies the directory to which remote source packages are fetch or expected to be found
    -derivedDataPath PATH                                    specifies the directory where build products and other derived data will go
    -archivePath PATH                                        specifies the directory where any created archives will be placed, or the archive that should be exported
    -exportArchive                                           specifies that an archive should be exported
    -exportNotarizedApp                                      export an archive that has been notarized by Apple
    -exportOptionsPlist PATH                                 specifies a path to a plist file that configures archive exporting
    -enableCodeCoverage YES|NO                               turn code coverage on or off when testing
    -exportPath PATH                                         specifies the destination for the product exported from an archive
    -skipUnavailableActions                                  specifies that scheme actions that cannot be performed should be skipped instead of causing a failure
    -exportLocalizations                                     exports completed and outstanding project localizations
    -importLocalizations                                     imports localizations for a project, assuming any necessary localized resources have been created in Xcode
    -localizationPath                                        specifies a path to XLIFF localization files
    -exportLanguage                                          specifies multiple optional ISO 639-1 languages included in a localization export
    -xctestrun                                               specifies a path to a test run specification
    -testPlan                                                specifies the name of the test plan associated with the scheme to use for testing
    -only-testing                                            constrains testing by specifying tests to include, and excluding other tests
    -only-testing:TEST-IDENTIFIER                            constrains testing by specifying tests to include, and excluding other tests
    -skip-testing                                            constrains testing by specifying tests to exclude, but including other tests
    -skip-testing:TEST-IDENTIFIER                            constrains testing by specifying tests to exclude, but including other tests
    -only-test-configuration                                 constrains testing by specifying test configurations to include, and excluding other test configurations
    -skip-test-configuration                                 constrains testing by specifying test configurations to exclude, but including other test configurations
    -testLanguage                                            constrains testing by specifying ISO 639-1 language in which to run the tests
    -testRegion                                              constrains testing by specifying ISO 3166-1 region in which to run the tests
    -resolvePackageDependencies                              resolves any Swift package dependencies referenced by the project or workspace
    -disableAutomaticPackageResolution                       prevents packages from automatically being resolved to versions other than those recorded in the `Package.resolved` file
    -json                                                    output as JSON (note: -json implies -quiet)
    -allowProvisioningUpdates                                Allow xcodebuild to communicate with the Apple Developer website. For automatically signed targets, xcodebuild will create and update profiles, app IDs, and certificates. For manually signed targets, xcodebuild will download missing or updated provisioning profiles. Requires a developer account to have been added in Xcode's Accounts preference pane.
    -allowProvisioningDeviceRegistration                     Allow xcodebuild to register your destination device on the developer portal if necessary. This flag only takes effect if -allowProvisioningUpdates is also passed.
    -showBuildTimingSummary                                  display a report of the timings of all the commands invoked during the build
    -create-xcframework                                      create an xcframework from prebuilt libraries; -help for more information.
##[error]Process completed with exit code 64.

原因
デスティネーションのフォーマットに誤りがあるためです。

解決策
-destination 'キー1=値1,キー2=値2,…' のフォーマットでデスティネーションを指定します。
私は -destination 'platform=iOS Simulator,name=iPhone 11 Pro Max' を指定しました。

テストケースが存在せず、テストに失敗する

  xcodebuild -scheme {スキーム名} -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug -destination 'platform=iOS Simulator,name=iPhone 11 Pro Max' clean test
  shell: /bin/bash -e {0}
Build settings from command line:
    SDKROOT = iphonesimulator13.1

note: Using new build system

** CLEAN SUCCEEDED **

note: Using new build system
note: Planning build
note: Constructing build description

(省略)

Testing failed:

Test session results, code coverage, and logs:
    {.xcresultファイルパス}

    Build input file cannot be found: '{UIテストファイルパス}'
    Testing cancelled because the build failed.

** TEST FAILED **


The following build commands failed:
    CopySwiftLibs {.xctestファイルパス}
(1 failure)
##[error]Process completed with exit code 65.

原因
こちらの不具合はローカルのXcode上でも発生していました。
(おそらく)デフォルトのテストファイル({プロジェクト名}Tests.swift、{プロジェクト名}UITests.swift)を削除し、テストケースが0件になったためです。

解決策
単体テストとUIテストのTARGETSを削除して追加し、デフォルトのテストファイルを生成し直します。

おわりに

この記事で少しでも xcodebuild コマンドにつまづく方が減ると嬉しいです。

おまけ:xcpretty

xcodebuild コマンドのログは、デフォルトだと見づらいです。
xcprettyを噛ませることで、ログが整形されて見やすくなるのでオススメです。

使い方は簡単で、xcodebuild コマンドの標準出力をパイプで渡すのみです。

$ xcodebuild -scheme {スキーム名} -sdk iphonesimulator -configuration Debug -destination 'platform=iOS Simulator,name=iPhone 11 Pro Max' clean test | xcpretty

詳細な使い方は公式リポジトリをご参照ください。
https://github.com/xcpretty/xcpretty

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