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nginxとgunicornでDjangoの本番環境を構築する(2018年9月最新版)

More than 1 year has passed since last update.

環境

Ubuntu 18.04
Nginx 1.14.0
Python 3.7

OSのupdate

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade -y && sudo apt-get install update-manager-core -y && sudo do-release-upgrade -d
This session appears to be running under ssh. It is not recommended
to perform a upgrade over ssh currently because in case of failure it
is harder to recover.

If you continue, an additional ssh daemon will be started at port
'1022'.
Do you want to continue?

Continue [yN] y
Fetching and installing the upgrade can take several hours. Once the
download has finished, the process cannot be canceled.

 Continue [yN]  Details [d]y

スクリーンショット 2018-09-05 23.41.11.png

スクリーンショット 2018-09-05 23.42.17.png

Remove obsolete packages?


28 packages are going to be removed.

 Continue [yN]  Details [d]y
To finish the upgrade, a restart is required.
If you select 'y' the system will be restarted.

Continue [yN] y
sudo cat /etc/*release

# 出力は以下
DISTRIB_ID=Ubuntu
DISTRIB_RELEASE=18.04
DISTRIB_CODENAME=bionic
DISTRIB_DESCRIPTION="Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS"
NAME="Ubuntu"
VERSION="18.04.1 LTS (Bionic Beaver)"
ID=ubuntu
ID_LIKE=debian
PRETTY_NAME="Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS"
VERSION_ID="18.04"
HOME_URL="https://www.ubuntu.com/"
SUPPORT_URL="https://help.ubuntu.com/"
BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/"
PRIVACY_POLICY_URL="https://www.ubuntu.com/legal/terms-and-policies/privacy-policy"
VERSION_CODENAME=bionic
UBUNTU_CODENAME=bionic

nginxのインストール

sudo apt install nginx -y
nginx -v
# nginx version: nginx/1.14.0 (Ubuntu)

systemctl status nginx

# 出力結果は以下

● nginx.service - A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Wed 2018-09-05 14:46:46 UTC; 3min 2s ago
     Docs: man:nginx(8)
  Process: 3052 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 3033 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/nginx -t -q -g daemon on; master_process on; (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 3057 (nginx)
    Tasks: 2 (limit: 1152)
   CGroup: /system.slice/nginx.service
           ├─3057 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on;
           └─3058 nginx: worker process

Sep 05 14:46:46 ip-10-0-1-205 systemd[1]: Starting A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server...
Sep 05 14:46:46 ip-10-0-1-205 systemd[1]: nginx.service: Failed to parse PID from file /run/nginx.pid: Invalid argument
Sep 05 14:46:46 ip-10-0-1-205 systemd[1]: Started A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server.

nginxの自動起動

sudo systemctl enable nginx.service

pythonのインストール

sudo apt install python3.7 python3.7-venv python3-pip -y

Djangoで必要になるパッケージインストール

sudo apt install gettext -y # compilemessagesを使う際に使用する

Djangoプロジェクト作成準備

python3.7 -m venv myblog
cd myblog
source bin/activate
pip install django gunicorn

Djangoプロジェクト作成

django-admin startproject myblog

Djangoでページがとりあえず表示されるようにする設定

vim myblog/settings.py

ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['myIPAddress']

gunicornのパスを取得

which gunicorn

venvから抜ける

deactivate

nginx設定

sudo vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/myblog.conf

server {
    listen  80;
    server_name     myIPAddress;

    location /static {
        alias /var/www/static;
    }

    location / {
        proxy_pass http://unix:/run/gunicorn/socket;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    }

}

gunicorn設定

sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.socket

[Unit]
Description=gunicorn socket

[Socket]
ListenStream=/run/gunicorn/socket

[Install]
WantedBy=sockets.target

sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service

[Unit]
Description=gunicorn daemon
Requires=gunicorn.socket
After=network.target

[Service]
PIDFile=/run/gunicorn/pid
User=ubuntu
Group=ubuntu
RuntimeDirectory=gunicorn
WorkingDirectory=/home/ubuntu/myblog/myblog
ExecStart=/home/ubuntu/myblog/bin/gunicorn --pid /run/gunicorn/pid --bind unix:/run/gunicorn/socket myblog.wsgi
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
ExecStop=/bin/kill -s TERM $MAINPID
PrivateTmp=true

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

ExecStart=/home/ubuntu/myblog/bin/gunicorn/home/ubuntu/myblog/bin/gunicornwhich gunicornで表示されたパス

gunicornとnginxの再起動

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx configtest
# 出力結果
* Testing nginx configuration                                                                                                                      [ OK ]

sudo systemctl stop nginx.service
sudo systemctl start nginx.service
sudo systemctl stop gunicorn.socket
sudo systemctl start gunicorn.socket

ブラウザで表示確認

アドレスバーにIPアドバイスを入力して、以下画面が表示されたらOK

スクリーンショット 2018-09-06 8.01.21.png

最後に

私の所属している株式会社マンハッタンコードでは、毎週土曜日に上野駅のいいオフィスにてノリノリ会という勉強会を開催しております。
私のようにDjangoやRailsを触っている人もいれば、SwiftやKotlinをやっている人もいます。
ご興味ある方はぜひTwitterにて連絡いただければと思います。Twitter
一緒にエンジニアリングを楽しみましょう!
また、弊社の仕事にご興味がある方。弊社HP
現在、弊社CTOと1対1で面談できます。面談可能日はこちら

参考

サーバー — Django Best Practices

takehiro_t59
HTML/CSS/JS(vue, jQuery, Riot)/PHP(Laravel/Codeigniter)/Python(Flask , Django)/Ruby(Rails)
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