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time, touch, tree コマンド

この記事は Linux コマンド 全部オレ Advent Calendar 2017 の15日目の記事です。

time

NAME
       time - time a simple command or give resource usage

SYNOPSIS
       time [options] command [arguments...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  time  command runs the specified program command with the given arguments.  When command finishes, time writes a message to
       standard error giving timing statistics about this program run.  These statistics consist of (i) the elapsed real  time  between
       invocation  and  termination, (ii) the user CPU time (the sum of the tms_utime and tms_cutime values in a struct tms as returned
       by times(2)), and (iii) the system CPU time (the sum of the tms_stime and tms_cstime values in  a  struct  tms  as  returned  by
       times(2)).

       Note: some shells (e.g., bash(1)) have a built-in time command that provides less functionality than the command described here.
       To access the real command, you may need to specify its pathname (something like /usr/bin/time).

実行したコマンドがどれくらいの時間がかかったか確認するコマンド。

real, user, sys

[sinsengumi ~]$ time sleep 4
real    0m4.002s
user    0m0.001s
sys     0m0.000s
用語 英語 意味
real real time プログラムの呼び出しから終了までにかかった実時間
user user CPU time プログラムが CPU を使った時間(プログラム自身の処理時間)
sys system CPU time プログラム以外(OS)が CPU を使った時間(プログラムに伴って OS が仕事をした時間)

touch

NAME
       touch - change file timestamps

SYNOPSIS
       touch [OPTION]... FILE...

DESCRIPTION
       Update the access and modification times of each FILE to the current time.

       A FILE argument that does not exist is created empty, unless -c or -h is supplied.

       A  FILE argument string of - is handled specially and causes touch to change the times of the file associated with standard out‐
       put.

よく使いそうな使い方

空ファイルを作成する(もしくはファイルのタイムスタンプを更新する)

[sinsengumi ~]$ ls -l
total 0
[sinsengumi ~]$ touch a.txt
[sinsengumi ~]$ ls -l
total 0
-rw-r--r-- 1 sinsengumi sinsengumi 0 Dec 15 16:36 a.txt
[sinsengumi ~]$ touch a.txt
[sinsengumi ~]$ ls -l
total 0
-rw-r--r-- 1 sinsengumi sinsengumi 0 Dec 15 16:37 a.txt

tree

NAME
       tree - list contents of directories in a tree-like format.

SYNOPSIS
       tree  [-acdfghilnpqrstuvxACDFQNSUX] [-L level [-R]] [-H baseHREF] [-T title] [-o filename] [--nolinks] [-P pattern] [-I pattern]
       [--inodes] [--device] [--noreport] [--dirsfirst] [--version] [--help] [--filelimit #] [--si] [--prune] [--du] [--timefmt format]
       [directory ...]

DESCRIPTION
       Tree  is a recursive directory listing program that produces a depth indented listing of files, which is colorized ala dircolors
       if the LS_COLORS environment variable is set and output is to tty.  With no arguments, tree  lists  the  files  in  the  current
       directory.   When directory arguments are given, tree lists all the files and/or directories found in the given directories each
       in turn.  Upon completion of listing all files/directories found, tree returns the total  number  of  files  and/or  directories
       listed.

       By default, when a symbolic link is encountered, the path that the symbolic link refers to is printed after the name of the link
       in the format:

           name -> real-path

       If the `-l' option is given and the symbolic link refers to an actual directory, then tree will follow the path of the  symbolic
       link as if it were a real directory.

ファイル・ディレクトリを木構造で出力する。

よく使いそうな使い方

[sinsengumi nginx]$ tree
.
├── conf.d
│   ├── default.conf
│   └── reverse_proxy.conf
├── fastcgi_params
├── koi-utf
├── koi-win
├── mime.types
├── modules -> ../../usr/lib64/nginx/modules
├── nginx.conf
├── scgi_params
├── uwsgi_params
└── win-utf
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