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Java 8 lambda expression Feature

Java 8 introduced lambda expression to move toward functional programming. A lambda expression is an anonymous function that doesn’t have a name and doesn’t belong to any class.

Where to use the Lambda Expression
A lambda expression can only be used where the type they are matched against is a single abstract method(SAM) interface or functional interface.

To use a lambda expression, you can either create your own functional interface or use the predefined functional interface provided by Java.

Example of a pre-defined interface: Runnable, callable, ActionListener, etc.

Pre Java 8: Use anonymous inner classes.
Post-Java 8: Now use lambda expression instead of anonymous inner classes.

Points to remember
Lambda expression is also known as a closure that allows us to treat functionality as a method arguments (passing functions around) or treat code as data.
Lambda expression concept was first introduced in the LISP programming language.
Lambda expression is used to provide an implementation of a functional interface or Single Method Interface.
Lambda expression treated as a function so the compiler does not create .class file.
Lambda expression doesn’t need to define a method again for implementation.
Lambda expression benefit is less coding.
Java Lambda expression Syntax
To create a lambda expression, On the left side of the symbol lambda operator(->) specify input parameters (if there are any), and on the right side place the expression or block of statements.

(parameter_list) -> {function_body}
For example, the lambda expression (x, y) -> x + y specifies that lambda expression takes two arguments x and y and returns the sum of these.

Note:

Optional type declaration: No need to declare the data type of a parameter. The compiler can inference the data type from the value of the parameter.
The optional parenthesis around parameter: No needs to declare a single parameter in parenthesis. For multiple parameters, parentheses are required.
Optional curly braces: For a single line of the statement, No need to use curly braces in the expression body.
Optional return keyword: The compiler automatically returns the value if the body has a single expression statement to return the value. Curly braces are required to indicate that expression statement returns a value.
Here is some Lamda expression example according to a number of arguments.

No Argument Syntax

()->{
//write some statemnet here
}
One Argument Syntax

(arg1)->{
//write some statemnet here
}
Two Argument Syntax

(arg1,arg2)->{
//write some statemnet here
}
Method vs Lambda Expression in Java
A function (or method) in Java has four main parts:
1. Name
2. Parameter list
3. Body
4. return type.

A lambda expression has these main parts:
Lambda expression only has a parameter list and body.
1. No name – Lambda expression is an anonymous function that doesn’t have a name.
2. Parameter list
3. Body – This is the main part of the function where implementation is written.
4. No return type – Don’t need to write a return statement explicitly. The compiler is able to infer the return type by checking the code.

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