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@miriwo

Rails6 ユーザ登録完了後に確認メールを送信する

More than 1 year has passed since last update.

目的

  • Rails6ユーザ登録完了後に登録時に入力したメールアドレスに確認メールを送信する方法をまとめる

作業期待値

  • ユーザ登録時に入力されるユーザのメールアドレスを使用して登録完了メールを送信する。
  • メールの送信機能を優先して実装するため、ユーザ登録時の情報保存とメール送信のタイミングは加味しない。

作業前にちょっと聞いてほしいこと

結論

  • メールアドレスはメソッドの引数として与える。

作業概要

  1. アプリ名/app/mailers直下にあるメーラー設定ファイルのmailer.rb内のメソッドに引数を指定
  2. mailer.rb内のメソッド内で引数を変数に格納する処理を追記
  3. メール送信トリガコードでメソッドを指定する際に引数を指定

作業詳細

  1. アプリ名/app/mailers直下にあるメーラー設定ファイルのmailer.rb内のメソッドに引数を指定

    1. 筆者の場合の記載をする。

      1. アプリ名/app/mailers直下にあるメーラー設定ファイルのnotice_mailer.rbを開く。
      2. 下記のように修正する。

        class NoticeMailer < ApplicationMailer
        
          # Subject can be set in your I18n file at config/locales/en.yml
          # with the following lookup:
          #
          #   en.notice_mailer.greeting.subject
          #
          def greeting
            @greeting = "Hi"
            mail to: "miriwo0517@gmail.com"
          end
        end
        

        ↓修正

        class NoticeMailer < ApplicationMailer
        
          # Subject can be set in your I18n file at config/locales/en.yml
          # with the following lookup:
          #
          #   en.notice_mailer.greeting.subject
          #
          def greeting(user)
            @greeting = "Hi"
            @user = user
            mail to: "miriwo0517@gmail.com"
          end
        end
        
  2. mailer.rb内のメソッド内で引数を変数に格納する処理を追記

    1. 筆者の場合の記載をする。

      1. アプリ名/app/mailers直下にあるメーラー設定ファイルのnotice_mailer.rbを開く。
      2. 下記のように修正する。

        class NoticeMailer < ApplicationMailer
        
          # Subject can be set in your I18n file at config/locales/en.yml
          # with the following lookup:
          #
          #   en.notice_mailer.greeting.subject
          #
          def greeting(user)
            @greeting = "Hi"
            @user = user
            mail to: "miriwo0517@gmail.com"
          end
        end
        

        ↓修正

        class NoticeMailer < ApplicationMailer
        
          # Subject can be set in your I18n file at config/locales/en.yml
          # with the following lookup:
          #
          #   en.notice_mailer.greeting.subject
          #
          def greeting(user)
            @greeting = "Hi"
            @user = user
            mail to: @user.email
          end
        end
        
  3. メール送信トリガコードでメソッドを指定する際に引数を指定

    1. 筆者の場合の記載をする。

      1. メール送信トリガコードのメソットの指定部分で引数を受け取れるようにする。
      2. ユーザ登録時にメールを送信したいのでアプリ名/app/controllers直下にあるusers_controller.rbcreateアクションの修正内容を下記に記載する。
      def create
        @user = User.new(name: params[:name], email: params[:email], 
        password_digest: params[:password])
        if @user.save
          # flash[:notice] = "登録完了"
          session[:user_id] = @user.id
          redirect_to("/users/#{@user.id}")
        else
          # flash[:notice] = "登録失敗"
          render ("users/new")
        end
      end
      

      ↓修正

      def create
        @user = User.new(name: params[:name], email: params[:email], 
        password_digest: params[:password])
        if @user.save
          #flash[:notice] = "登録完了"
          session[:user_id] = @user.id
          NoticeMailer.greeting(@user).deliver_now
          redirect_to("/users/#{@user.id}")
        else
         #flash[:notice] = "登録失敗"
         render ("users/new")
        end
      end
      

付録

  • 今回の処理に関係するメーラーの設定ファイルやユーザ新規登録のビューファイルなど内容を下記に記載する。
  • notice_mailer.rb
class NoticeMailer < ApplicationMailer

  # Subject can be set in your I18n file at config/locales/en.yml
  # with the following lookup:
  #
  #   en.notice_mailer.greeting.subject
  #
  def greeting(user)
    @greeting = "Hi"
    @user = user
    mail to: @user.email
  end
end
  • development.rb
Rails.application.configure do
  # Settings specified here will take precedence over those in config/application.rb.

  # In the development environment your application's code is reloaded on
  # every request. This slows down response time but is perfect for development
  # since you don't have to restart the web server when you make code changes.
  config.cache_classes = false

  # Do not eager load code on boot.
  config.eager_load = false

  # Show full error reports.
  config.consider_all_requests_local = true

  # Enable/disable caching. By default caching is disabled.
  # Run rails dev:cache to toggle caching.
  if Rails.root.join('tmp', 'caching-dev.txt').exist?
    config.action_controller.perform_caching = true
    config.action_controller.enable_fragment_cache_logging = true

    config.cache_store = :memory_store
    config.public_file_server.headers = {
      'Cache-Control' => "public, max-age=#{2.days.to_i}"
    }
  else
    config.action_controller.perform_caching = false

    config.cache_store = :null_store
  end

  # Store uploaded files on the local file system (see config/storage.yml for options).
  config.active_storage.service = :local

  # Don't care if the mailer can't send.
  # config.action_mailer.perform_caching = false
  config.action_mailer.raise_delivery_errors = true
  config.action_mailer.delivery_method = :smtp
  config.action_mailer.smtp_settings = {
    :enable_starttls_auto => true,
    :address => 'smtp.gmail.com',
    :port => '587',
    :domain => 'smtp.gmail.com',
    :authentication => 'plain',
    :user_name => 'miriwo.rails@gmail.com',
    :password => 'smppyvjbfzhweyxx'
  }

  # Print deprecation notices to the Rails logger.
  config.active_support.deprecation = :log

  # Raise an error on page load if there are pending migrations.
  config.active_record.migration_error = :page_load

  # Highlight code that triggered database queries in logs.
  config.active_record.verbose_query_logs = true

  # Debug mode disables concatenation and preprocessing of assets.
  # This option may cause significant delays in view rendering with a large
  # number of complex assets.
  config.assets.debug = true

  # Suppress logger output for asset requests.
  config.assets.quiet = true

  # Raises error for missing translations.
  # config.action_view.raise_on_missing_translations = true

  # Use an evented file watcher to asynchronously detect changes in source code,
  # routes, locales, etc. This feature depends on the listen gem.
  config.file_watcher = ActiveSupport::EventedFileUpdateChecker
end
  • production.rb
Rails.application.configure do
  # Settings specified here will take precedence over those in config/application.rb.

  # Code is not reloaded between requests.
  config.cache_classes = true

  # Eager load code on boot. This eager loads most of Rails and
  # your application in memory, allowing both threaded web servers
  # and those relying on copy on write to perform better.
  # Rake tasks automatically ignore this option for performance.
  config.eager_load = true

  # Full error reports are disabled and caching is turned on.
  config.consider_all_requests_local       = false
  config.action_controller.perform_caching = true

  # Ensures that a master key has been made available in either ENV["RAILS_MASTER_KEY"]
  # or in config/master.key. This key is used to decrypt credentials (and other encrypted files).
  # config.require_master_key = true

  # Disable serving static files from the `/public` folder by default since
  # Apache or NGINX already handles this.
  config.public_file_server.enabled = ENV['RAILS_SERVE_STATIC_FILES'].present?

  # Compress CSS using a preprocessor.
  # config.assets.css_compressor = :sass

  # Do not fallback to assets pipeline if a precompiled asset is missed.
  config.assets.compile = false

  # Enable serving of images, stylesheets, and JavaScripts from an asset server.
  # config.action_controller.asset_host = 'http://assets.example.com'

  # Specifies the header that your server uses for sending files.
  # config.action_dispatch.x_sendfile_header = 'X-Sendfile' # for Apache
  # config.action_dispatch.x_sendfile_header = 'X-Accel-Redirect' # for NGINX

  # Store uploaded files on the local file system (see config/storage.yml for options).
  config.active_storage.service = :local

  # Mount Action Cable outside main process or domain.
  # config.action_cable.mount_path = nil
  # config.action_cable.url = 'wss://example.com/cable'
  # config.action_cable.allowed_request_origins = [ 'http://example.com', /http:\/\/example.*/ ]

  # Force all access to the app over SSL, use Strict-Transport-Security, and use secure cookies.
  # config.force_ssl = true

  # Use the lowest log level to ensure availability of diagnostic information
  # when problems arise.
  config.log_level = :debug

  # Prepend all log lines with the following tags.
  config.log_tags = [ :request_id ]

  # Use a different cache store in production.
  # config.cache_store = :mem_cache_store

  # Use a real queuing backend for Active Job (and separate queues per environment).
  # config.active_job.queue_adapter     = :resque
  # config.active_job.queue_name_prefix = "eveyDayStudy_production"

  config.action_mailer.perform_caching = false
  config.action_mailer.delivery_method = :smtp
  config.action_mailer.perform_deliveries = true
  config.action_mailer.smtp_settings = {
  :user_name => ENV['SENDGRID_USERNAME'],
  :password => ENV['SENDGRID_PASSWORD'],
  :domain => 'herokuapp.com',
  :address => 'smtp.sendgrid.net',
  :port => 587,
  :authentication => :plain,
  :enable_starttls_auto => true

  # Ignore bad email addresses and do not raise email delivery errors.
  # Set this to true and configure the email server for immediate delivery to raise delivery errors.
  # config.action_mailer.raise_delivery_errors = false

  # Enable locale fallbacks for I18n (makes lookups for any locale fall back to
  # the I18n.default_locale when a translation cannot be found).
  config.i18n.fallbacks = true

  # Send deprecation notices to registered listeners.
  config.active_support.deprecation = :notify

  # Use default logging formatter so that PID and timestamp are not suppressed.
  config.log_formatter = ::Logger::Formatter.new

  # Use a different logger for distributed setups.
  # require 'syslog/logger'
  # config.logger = ActiveSupport::TaggedLogging.new(Syslog::Logger.new 'app-name')

  if ENV["RAILS_LOG_TO_STDOUT"].present?
    logger           = ActiveSupport::Logger.new(STDOUT)
    logger.formatter = config.log_formatter
    config.logger    = ActiveSupport::TaggedLogging.new(logger)
  end

  # Do not dump schema after migrations.
  config.active_record.dump_schema_after_migration = false

  # Inserts middleware to perform automatic connection switching.
  # The `database_selector` hash is used to pass options to the DatabaseSelector
  # middleware. The `delay` is used to determine how long to wait after a write
  # to send a subsequent read to the primary.
  #
  # The `database_resolver` class is used by the middleware to determine which
  # database is appropriate to use based on the time delay.
  #
  # The `database_resolver_context` class is used by the middleware to set
  # timestamps for the last write to the primary. The resolver uses the context
  # class timestamps to determine how long to wait before reading from the
  # replica.
  #
  # By default Rails will store a last write timestamp in the session. The
  # DatabaseSelector middleware is designed as such you can define your own
  # strategy for connection switching and pass that into the middleware through
  # these configuration options.
  # config.active_record.database_selector = { delay: 2.seconds }
  # config.active_record.database_resolver = ActiveRecord::Middleware::DatabaseSelector::Resolver
  # config.active_record.database_resolver_context = ActiveRecord::Middleware::DatabaseSelector::Resolver::Session
end

  • posts_controller.rb
class PostsController < ApplicationController
  def index
    NoticeMailer.greeting.deliver_now
    @posts = Post.where(user_id: @current_user.id)
  end

  def show
    @post = Post.find_by(id: params[:id])
  end

  def new
    @post = Post.new
  end

  def create
    @post = Post.new(content: params[:content], study_time: params[:'study_time'], today_study_time: params[:'study_time'], hash_tag: params[:hash_tag], user_id: @current_user.id)
    if @post.save
      # flash[:notice] = "保存完了"
      redirect_to("/posts/#{@post.id}")
    else
      # flash[:notice] = "保存失敗"
      render ("posts/new")
    end
  end

  def edit_form
    @post = Post.find_by(id: params[:id])
  end

  def edit
    @post = Post.find_by(id: params[:id])
    @post.content = params[:content]
    @post.hash_tag = params[:hash_tag]
    @post.save
    redirect_to("/posts/#{@post.id}")
  end

  def achievement
    @post = Post.find_by(id: params[:id])

  end

  def destroy
    @post = Post.find_by(id: params[:id])
    @post.destroy
    redirect_to("/posts/index/#{@post.user_id}")
  end

  def update
    @post = Post.find_by(id: params[:id])
    @post.today_study_time = params[:study_time].to_f
    @post.save
    @post.study_time += @post.today_study_time
    @post.save
    redirect_to("/posts/#{@post.id}")
  end

  def tweet_content
    @post = Post.find_by(id: params[:id])
  end
end
  • アプリ名/app/mailersのapplication_mailer.rb
class ApplicationMailer < ActionMailer::Base
  default from: 'from@example.com'
  layout 'mailer'
end
  • アプリ名/app/views/notice_mailerのgreeting.html.erb
<p>このメールはテストメールです。</p>

<p><%= @greeting %>, find me in app/views/notice_mailer/greeting.html.erb</p>
  • アプリ名/app/views/notice_mailerのgreeting.text.erb
このメールはテストメールです。

<%= @greeting %>, find me in app/views/notice_mailer/greeting.text.erb
  • アプリ名/test/mailersのnotice_mailer_test.rb
require 'test_helper'

class NoticeMailerTest < ActionMailer::TestCase
  test "greeting" do
    mail = NoticeMailer.greeting
    assert_equal "Greeting", mail.subject
    assert_equal ["to@example.org"], mail.to
    assert_equal ["from@example.com"], mail.from
    assert_match "Hi", mail.body.encoded
  end

end
  • アプリ名/test/mailers/previewsのnotice_mailer_preview.rb
# Preview all emails at http://localhost:3000/rails/mailers/notice_mailer
class NoticeMailerPreview < ActionMailer::Preview

  # Preview this email at http://localhost:3000/rails/mailers/notice_mailer/greeting
  def greeting
    NoticeMailer.greeting
  end

end
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miriwo
web系のバックエンドの知識を習得中! 2019/07/07~毎日更新中!
boomtechcafe
埼玉県の朝霞台を拠点にエンジニアの勉強会、交流会等のイベントを企画しています! 朝霞台駅か北朝霞駅が全然行けちゃうぜってエンジニアの方がいたら是非! もくもく会とかゲーム大会とかもやれたらな~って思ってます。

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Help us understand the problem. What is going on with this article?