Ethereum
OpenZeppelin
browser-solidity
ERC721

OpenZeppelinのERC721が更新されたので見てみる

概要

OpenZeppelinのERC721が更新されました。(3/23)
https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/zeppelin-solidity/pull/803

ざっくり読んだ感じ、トークンの基本機能が決まった#640のと、譲渡不能なトークンの仕様#809が更新されたあたりの対応ぽい。
追加検討中の機能として、「譲渡不能トークンと譲渡可能トークンの両立#756」、「クラウドセール#776」等があった。

とりあえず大きめのマージだったのでいじってみる。

ソース

ERC721Basic

基本的なインタフェースのまとめ。

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

/**
 * @title ERC721 Non-Fungible Token Standard basic interface
 * @dev see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-721.md
 */
contract ERC721Basic {
  event Transfer(address indexed _from, address indexed _to, uint256 _tokenId);
  event Approval(address indexed _owner, address indexed _approved, uint256 _tokenId);
  event ApprovalForAll(address indexed _owner, address indexed _operator, bool _approved);  

  function balanceOf(address _owner) public view returns (uint256 _balance);
  function ownerOf(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (address _owner);
  function exists(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (bool _exists);

  function approve(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) public;
  function getApproved(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (address _operator);

  function setApprovalForAll(address _operator, bool _approved) public;
  function isApprovedForAll(address _owner, address _operator) public view returns (bool);

  function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId) public;
  function safeTransferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId) public;  
  function safeTransferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data) public;
}

approveForがgetApprovedになって、削除予定メソッドがここから消えた感じ。
あとtransfer周りが分割されてる。送り主が承認→受け取り側が転送みたいな。

ちょっとわかんなかったのが、eip721だとトークンの承認と送信はexternalのpayableなのだけど、今回のOpenZeppelinの修正だとpublicなので、どうすんだろコレ的な。

https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-721.md

ERC721

EnumerableとMetaを追加したERC721BasicがERC721だよーくらいのノリで。

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

import "./ERC721Basic.sol";

/**
 * @title ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard, optional enumeration extension
 * @dev See https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-721.md
 */
contract ERC721Enumerable is ERC721Basic {
  function totalSupply() public view returns (uint256);
  function tokenOfOwnerByIndex(address _owner, uint256 _index) public view returns (uint256 _tokenId);
  function tokenByIndex(uint256 _index) public view returns (uint256);
}

/**
 * @title ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard, optional metadata extension
 * @dev See https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-721.md
 */
contract ERC721Metadata is ERC721Basic {
  function name() public view returns (string _name);
  function symbol() public view returns (string _symbol);
  function tokenURI(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (string);
}

/**
 * @title ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard, full implementation interface
 * @dev See https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-721.md
 */
contract ERC721 is ERC721Basic, ERC721Enumerable, ERC721Metadata {
}

個人的にMetaは個別にnameとかその他追加情報入れたいので、この辺は最終盤出たら自分でいじる。
今回はお試しなのでここにMetaなんてなかった体でスルーする。

ERC721Receiver / ERC721Holder

safeTransferFrom系の処理後処理。toがコントラクトの際に使ってね的な何か。
50000ガス以内でやれとのこと。

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

/**
 * @title ERC721 token receiver interface
 * @dev Interface for any contract that wants to support safeTransfers
 *  from ERC721 asset contracts.
 */
contract ERC721Receiver {
  /**
   * @dev Magic value to be returned upon successful reception of an NFT
   *  Equals to `bytes4(keccak256("onERC721Received(address,uint256,bytes)"))`,
   *  which can be also obtained as `ERC721Receiver(0).onERC721Received.selector`
   */
  bytes4 constant ERC721_RECEIVED = 0xf0b9e5ba; 

  /**
   * @notice Handle the receipt of an NFT
   * @dev The ERC721 smart contract calls this function on the recipient
   *  after a `safetransfer`. This function MAY throw to revert and reject the
   *  transfer. This function MUST use 50,000 gas or less. Return of other
   *  than the magic value MUST result in the transaction being reverted.
   *  Note: the contract address is always the message sender.
   * @param _from The sending address 
   * @param _tokenId The NFT identifier which is being transfered
   * @param _data Additional data with no specified format
   * @return `bytes4(keccak256("onERC721Received(address,uint256,bytes)"))`
   */
  function onERC721Received(address _from, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data) public returns(bytes4);
}
===============================================
pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

import "./ERC721Receiver.sol";

contract ERC721Holder is ERC721Receiver {
  function onERC721Received(address, uint256, bytes) public returns(bytes4) {
    return ERC721_RECEIVED;
  }
}

ERC721BasicToken

今回追加の肝。
基本的な実装をここで大体やっててくれてる。
計算とアドレス評価を安全にやるために、SafeMathとAddressUtilsがインポートされてる。

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

import "./ERC721Basic.sol";
import "./ERC721Receiver.sol";
import "./SafeMath.sol";
import "./AddressUtils.sol";

/**
 * @title ERC721 Non-Fungible Token Standard basic implementation
 * @dev see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-721.md
 */
contract ERC721BasicToken is ERC721Basic {
  using SafeMath for uint256;
  using AddressUtils for address;

  // Equals to `bytes4(keccak256("onERC721Received(address,uint256,bytes)"))`
  // which can be also obtained as `ERC721Receiver(0).onERC721Received.selector`
  bytes4 constant ERC721_RECEIVED = 0xf0b9e5ba; 

  // Mapping from token ID to owner
  mapping (uint256 => address) internal tokenOwner;

  // Mapping from token ID to approved address
  mapping (uint256 => address) internal tokenApprovals;

  // Mapping from owner to number of owned token
  mapping (address => uint256) internal ownedTokensCount;

  // Mapping from owner to operator approvals
  mapping (address => mapping (address => bool)) internal operatorApprovals;

  /**
  * @dev Guarantees msg.sender is owner of the given token
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to validate its ownership belongs to msg.sender
  */
  modifier onlyOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenId) {
    require(ownerOf(_tokenId) == msg.sender);
    _;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Checks msg.sender can transfer a token, by being owner, approved, or operator
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to validate
  */
  modifier canTransfer(uint256 _tokenId) {
    require(isApprovedOrOwner(msg.sender, _tokenId));
    _;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Gets the balance of the specified address
  * @param _owner address to query the balance of
  * @return uint256 representing the amount owned by the passed address
  */
  function balanceOf(address _owner) public view returns (uint256) {
    require(_owner != address(0));
    return ownedTokensCount[_owner];
  }

  /**
  * @dev Gets the owner of the specified token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to query the owner of
  * @return owner address currently marked as the owner of the given token ID
  */
  function ownerOf(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (address) {
    address owner = tokenOwner[_tokenId];
    require(owner != address(0));
    return owner;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Returns whether the specified token exists
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to query the existance of
  * @return whether the token exists
  */
  function exists(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (bool) {
    address owner = tokenOwner[_tokenId];
    return owner != address(0);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Approves another address to transfer the given token ID
  * @dev The zero address indicates there is no approved address.
  * @dev There can only be one approved address per token at a given time.
  * @dev Can only be called by the token owner or an approved operator.
  * @param _to address to be approved for the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be approved
  */
  function approve(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) public {
    address owner = ownerOf(_tokenId);
    require(_to != owner);
    require(msg.sender == owner || isApprovedForAll(owner, msg.sender));

    if (getApproved(_tokenId) != address(0) || _to != address(0)) {
      tokenApprovals[_tokenId] = _to;
      Approval(owner, _to, _tokenId);
    }
  }

  /**
   * @dev Gets the approved address for a token ID, or zero if no address set
   * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to query the approval of
   * @return address currently approved for a the given token ID
   */
  function getApproved(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (address) {
    return tokenApprovals[_tokenId];
  }


  /**
  * @dev Sets or unsets the approval of a given operator
  * @dev An operator is allowed to transfer all tokens of the sender on their behalf
  * @param _to operator address to set the approval
  * @param _approved representing the status of the approval to be set
  */
  function setApprovalForAll(address _to, bool _approved) public {
    require(_to != msg.sender);
    operatorApprovals[msg.sender][_to] = _approved;
    ApprovalForAll(msg.sender, _to, _approved);
  }

  /**
   * @dev Tells whether an operator is approved by a given owner
   * @param _owner owner address which you want to query the approval of
   * @param _operator operator address which you want to query the approval of
   * @return bool whether the given operator is approved by the given owner
   */
  function isApprovedForAll(address _owner, address _operator) public view returns (bool) {
    return operatorApprovals[_owner][_operator];
  }

  /**
  * @dev Transfers the ownership of a given token ID to another address
  * @dev Usage of this method is discouraged, use `safeTransferFrom` whenever possible
  * @dev Requires the msg sender to be the owner, approved, or operator
  * @param _from current owner of the token
  * @param _to address to receive the ownership of the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
  */
  function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId) public canTransfer(_tokenId) {
    require(_from != address(0));
    require(_to != address(0));

    clearApproval(_from, _tokenId);
    removeTokenFrom(_from, _tokenId);
    addTokenTo(_to, _tokenId);

    Transfer(_from, _to, _tokenId);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Safely transfers the ownership of a given token ID to another address
  * @dev If the target address is a contract, it must implement `onERC721Received`,
  *  which is called upon a safe transfer, and return the magic value
  *  `bytes4(keccak256("onERC721Received(address,uint256,bytes)"))`; otherwise,
  *  the transfer is reverted.
  * @dev Requires the msg sender to be the owner, approved, or operator
  * @param _from current owner of the token
  * @param _to address to receive the ownership of the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
  */
  function safeTransferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId) public canTransfer(_tokenId) {
    safeTransferFrom(_from, _to, _tokenId, "");
  }

  /**
  * @dev Safely transfers the ownership of a given token ID to another address
  * @dev If the target address is a contract, it must implement `onERC721Received`,
  *  which is called upon a safe transfer, and return the magic value
  *  `bytes4(keccak256("onERC721Received(address,uint256,bytes)"))`; otherwise,
  *  the transfer is reverted.
  * @dev Requires the msg sender to be the owner, approved, or operator
  * @param _from current owner of the token
  * @param _to address to receive the ownership of the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
  * @param _data bytes data to send along with a safe transfer check
  */
  function safeTransferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data) public canTransfer(_tokenId) {
    transferFrom(_from, _to, _tokenId);
    require(checkAndCallSafeTransfer(_from, _to, _tokenId, _data));
  }

  /**
   * @dev Returns whether the given spender can transfer a given token ID
   * @param _spender address of the spender to query
   * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
   * @return bool whether the msg.sender is approved for the given token ID,
   *  is an operator of the owner, or is the owner of the token
   */
  function isApprovedOrOwner(address _spender, uint256 _tokenId) internal view returns (bool) {
    address owner = ownerOf(_tokenId);
    return _spender == owner || getApproved(_tokenId) == _spender || isApprovedForAll(owner, _spender);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to mint a new token
  * @dev Reverts if the given token ID already exists
  * @param _to The address that will own the minted token
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be minted by the msg.sender
  */
  function _mint(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    require(_to != address(0));
    addTokenTo(_to, _tokenId);
    Transfer(address(0), _to, _tokenId);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to burn a specific token
  * @dev Reverts if the token does not exist
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token being burned by the msg.sender
  */
  function _burn(address _owner, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    clearApproval(_owner, _tokenId);
    removeTokenFrom(_owner, _tokenId);
    Transfer(_owner, address(0), _tokenId);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to clear current approval of a given token ID
  * @dev Reverts if the given address is not indeed the owner of the token
  * @param _owner owner of the token
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
  */
  function clearApproval(address _owner, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    require(ownerOf(_tokenId) == _owner);
    if (tokenApprovals[_tokenId] != address(0)) {
      tokenApprovals[_tokenId] = address(0);
      Approval(_owner, address(0), _tokenId);
    }
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to add a token ID to the list of a given address
  * @param _to address representing the new owner of the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be added to the tokens list of the given address
  */
  function addTokenTo(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    require(tokenOwner[_tokenId] == address(0));
    tokenOwner[_tokenId] = _to;
    ownedTokensCount[_to] = ownedTokensCount[_to].add(1);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to remove a token ID from the list of a given address
  * @param _from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be removed from the tokens list of the given address
  */
  function removeTokenFrom(address _from, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    require(ownerOf(_tokenId) == _from);
    ownedTokensCount[_from] = ownedTokensCount[_from].sub(1);
    tokenOwner[_tokenId] = address(0);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to invoke `onERC721Received` on a target address
  * @dev The call is not executed if the target address is not a contract
  * @param _from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
  * @param _to target address that will receive the tokens
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
  * @param _data bytes optional data to send along with the call
  * @return whether the call correctly returned the expected magic value
  */
  function checkAndCallSafeTransfer(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data) internal returns (bool) {
    if (!_to.isContract()) {
      return true;
    }
    bytes4 retval = ERC721Receiver(_to).onERC721Received(_from, _tokenId, _data);
    return (retval == ERC721_RECEIVED);
  }
}

NTFなのでトークンの送信は、譲渡ではなく削除後再精製みたいになってる。

checkAndCallSafeTransferでERC721Receiverが使われてる。
コレ自体はsafeTransferFromから転送実行後に呼ばれている。
_toがコントラクトの時に動くぽいけど、どういうケースなんだろう。
checkAndCallSafeTransferがfalseで返るとrequireに引っかかってリバートされる。

DeprecatedERC721

ERC721で廃止されたメソッド。
下位互換のために必要なら実装すれば的な。
tokensOfの代替どこだろう、これ結構便利なのに。

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

import "./ERC721.sol";

/**
 * @title ERC-721 methods shipped in OpenZeppelin v1.7.0, removed in the latest version of the standard
 * @dev Only use this interface for compatibility with previously deployed contracts
 * @dev Use ERC721 for interacting with new contracts which are standard-compliant
 */
contract DeprecatedERC721 is ERC721 {
  function takeOwnership(uint256 _tokenId) public;
  function transfer(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) public;
  function tokensOf(address _owner) public view returns (uint256[]);
}

ERC721Token

コメントにあるように、必要なメソッドとオマケのメソッドの実装しといたで的な。
approve allがどうこう言ってるので、後で調べる。

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

import "./ERC721.sol";
import "./DeprecatedERC721.sol";
import "./ERC721BasicToken.sol";


/**
 * @title Full ERC721 Token
 * This implementation includes all the required and some optional functionality of the ERC721 standard
 * Moreover, it includes approve all functionality using operator terminology
 * @dev see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-721.md
 */
contract ERC721Token is ERC721, ERC721BasicToken {
  // Token name
  string internal name_;

  // Token symbol
  string internal symbol_;

  // Mapping from owner to list of owned token IDs
  mapping (address => uint256[]) internal ownedTokens;

  // Mapping from token ID to index of the owner tokens list
  mapping(uint256 => uint256) internal ownedTokensIndex;

  // Array with all token ids, used for enumeration
  uint256[] internal allTokens;

  // Mapping from token id to position in the allTokens array
  mapping(uint256 => uint256) internal allTokensIndex;

  // Optional mapping for token URIs 
  mapping(uint256 => string) internal tokenURIs;

  /**
  * @dev Constructor function
  */
  function ERC721Token(string _name, string _symbol) public {
    name_ = _name;
    symbol_ = _symbol;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Gets the token name
  * @return string representing the token name
  */
  function name() public view returns (string) {
    return name_;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Gets the token symbol
  * @return string representing the token symbol
  */
  function symbol() public view returns (string) {
    return symbol_;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Returns an URI for a given token ID
  * @dev Throws if the token ID does not exist. May return an empty string.
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to query
  */
  function tokenURI(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (string) {
    require(exists(_tokenId));
    return tokenURIs[_tokenId];
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to set the token URI for a given token
  * @dev Reverts if the token ID does not exist
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to set its URI
  * @param _uri string URI to assign
  */
  function _setTokenURI(uint256 _tokenId, string _uri) internal {
    require(exists(_tokenId));
    tokenURIs[_tokenId] = _uri;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Gets the token ID at a given index of the tokens list of the requested owner
  * @param _owner address owning the tokens list to be accessed
  * @param _index uint256 representing the index to be accessed of the requested tokens list
  * @return uint256 token ID at the given index of the tokens list owned by the requested address
  */
  function tokenOfOwnerByIndex(address _owner, uint256 _index) public view returns (uint256) {
    require(_index < balanceOf(_owner));
    return ownedTokens[_owner][_index];
  }

  /**
  * @dev Gets the total amount of tokens stored by the contract
  * @return uint256 representing the total amount of tokens
  */
  function totalSupply() public view returns (uint256) {
    return allTokens.length;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Gets the token ID at a given index of all the tokens in this contract
  * @dev Reverts if the index is greater or equal to the total number of tokens
  * @param _index uint256 representing the index to be accessed of the tokens list
  * @return uint256 token ID at the given index of the tokens list
  */
  function tokenByIndex(uint256 _index) public view returns (uint256) {
    require(_index < totalSupply());
    return allTokens[_index];
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to add a token ID to the list of a given address
  * @param _to address representing the new owner of the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be added to the tokens list of the given address
  */
  function addTokenTo(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    super.addTokenTo(_to, _tokenId);
    uint256 length = ownedTokens[_to].length;
    ownedTokens[_to].push(_tokenId);
    ownedTokensIndex[_tokenId] = length;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to remove a token ID from the list of a given address
  * @param _from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be removed from the tokens list of the given address
  */
  function removeTokenFrom(address _from, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    super.removeTokenFrom(_from, _tokenId);

    uint256 tokenIndex = ownedTokensIndex[_tokenId];
    uint256 lastTokenIndex = ownedTokens[_from].length.sub(1);
    uint256 lastToken = ownedTokens[_from][lastTokenIndex];

    ownedTokens[_from][tokenIndex] = lastToken;
    ownedTokens[_from][lastTokenIndex] = 0;
    // Note that this will handle single-element arrays. In that case, both tokenIndex and lastTokenIndex are going to
    // be zero. Then we can make sure that we will remove _tokenId from the ownedTokens list since we are first swapping
    // the lastToken to the first position, and then dropping the element placed in the last position of the list

    ownedTokens[_from].length--;
    ownedTokensIndex[_tokenId] = 0;
    ownedTokensIndex[lastToken] = tokenIndex;
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to mint a new token
  * @dev Reverts if the given token ID already exists
  * @param _to address the beneficiary that will own the minted token
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be minted by the msg.sender
  */
  function _mint(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    super._mint(_to, _tokenId);

    allTokensIndex[_tokenId] = allTokens.length;
    allTokens.push(_tokenId);
  }

  /**
  * @dev Internal function to burn a specific token
  * @dev Reverts if the token does not exist
  * @param _owner owner of the token to burn
  * @param _tokenId uint256 ID of the token being burned by the msg.sender
  */
  function _burn(address _owner, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
    super._burn(_owner, _tokenId);

    // Clear metadata (if any)
    if (bytes(tokenURIs[_tokenId]).length != 0) {
      delete tokenURIs[_tokenId];
    }

    // Reorg all tokens array
    uint256 tokenIndex = allTokensIndex[_tokenId];
    uint256 lastTokenIndex = allTokens.length.sub(1);
    uint256 lastToken = allTokens[lastTokenIndex];

    allTokens[tokenIndex] = lastToken;
    allTokens[lastTokenIndex] = 0;

    allTokens.length--;
    allTokensIndex[_tokenId] = 0;
    allTokensIndex[lastToken] = tokenIndex;
  }

}

ERC721Tokenではトークンの管理ぽいことをやっている。
自分でトークン作る時は、今の所コレを継承しとけば楽ができる。
2018/3/27時点ではまだドラフト版なため、今後も実装が変わる可能性あり。
というかまず変わる。

感想

譲渡周りを綺麗にして、metaはとりあえず保留のような印象を受けた。
ゲームに使用する場合だと一般的なトークン取引所は使わないで自前の取引所作る気もするので、今回の修正でうんこれはすげーやみたいなのはあんまり。
というかゲームに特化したERC721後継のERCXXXXが欲しい。

※ 長くなったので実装は別記事でやる。