Help us understand the problem. What is going on with this article?

Windows10のウィンドウ構成要素を2種類の方法で列挙するツールを作ってみた

More than 1 year has passed since last update.

目標

ライブラリやソフトを何もダウンロードなどせずに
BASIC認証画面を自動で入力したい(Windows10)
(※入力はまだやれていない)できた

image.png

今回やった内容

Windowの構成要素をツリー表示する汎用的なツールを作った。(WindowsAPIを使って表示/Automationを使って表示 を切り替えられる)

わかったこと

  • BASIC認証の画面(ClassName : Credential Dialog Xaml Host)は、 EnumChildWindows (Win32API)では取得できない。

  • System.Windows.Automation.AutomationElement.FromHandle メソッドにHWND(ウィンドウハンドル)を渡せば情報が取り出せる。

  • 自動入力するには AutomationId がそれっぽい。(EditField_0PasswordField_1)
    AutomationIdでググった感じ、できそう。
    できた

  • Webブラウザの中の入力ボックスはとれなさそう(edgeでgoogleを開いてみたが無理っぽい(?))

自作ツールの画面キャプチャ

image.png

情報を拾えそう。

ソースコード

Windowを列挙する画面が立ち上がります。
リストの要素をダブルクリックすると上記のキャプチャのような画面が出ます。

改良元(以前つくったやつ):https://qiita.com/kob58im/items/1c105c9bc69ced61214b

変なコメントアウトが残っているのはご容赦ください。

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Text;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Drawing.Drawing2D;
using System.IO;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

using Automation = System.Windows.Automation;
// csc /r:C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\assembly\GAC_MSIL\UIAutomationClient\v4.0_4.0.0.0__31bf3856ad364e35\UIAutomationClient.dll ^
//     /r:C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\assembly\GAC_MSIL\UIAutomationTypes\v4.0_4.0.0.0__31bf3856ad364e35\UIAutomationTypes.dll ^
//     /r:C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\assembly\GAC_MSIL\WindowsBase\v4.0_4.0.0.0__31bf3856ad364e35\WindowsBase.dll ^
//     %*

public static class MyWin32Util
{
    const int MaxTextLength = 500; // for GetClassName, GetWindowText

    public static string MyGetClassName(IntPtr hWnd, out int retCode)
    {
        StringBuilder csb = new StringBuilder(MaxTextLength);
        retCode = NativeMethods.GetClassName(hWnd, csb, csb.Capacity);
        if ( retCode > 0 ) {
            return csb.ToString();
        }
        else {
            return string.Empty;
        }
    }

    public static string MyGetWindowText(IntPtr hWnd, out int retCode)
    {
        //ウィンドウのタイトルを取得する
        StringBuilder tsb = new StringBuilder(MaxTextLength);
        retCode = NativeMethods.GetWindowText(hWnd, tsb, tsb.Capacity);

        if ( retCode > 0 ) {
            return tsb.ToString();
        }
        else {
            return string.Empty;
        }
    }

    public static WINDOWINFO MyGetWindowInfo(IntPtr hWnd, out int retCode)
    {
        var wi = new WINDOWINFO();
        wi.cbSize = Marshal.SizeOf(wi);  // sizeof(WINDOWINFO);でもよいようだが sizeof()を使う場合は unsafe{}が必要
        retCode = NativeMethods.GetWindowInfo(hWnd, ref wi);
        return wi;
    }


}


[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
public struct POINT
{
    public int x;
    public int y;
}

[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
public struct WINDOWINFO
{
    public int   cbSize;
    public RECT  rcWindow;
    public RECT  rcClient;
    public int   dwStyle;
    public int   dwExStyle;
    public int   dwWindowStatus;
    public uint  cxWindowBorders;
    public uint  cyWindowBorders;
    public short atomWindowType;
    public short wCreatorVersion;
}

[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
public struct RECT
{
    public int left;
    public int top;
    public int right;  // external area. source:  https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/previous-versions/dd162897(v%3Dvs.85)
    public int bottom; // 
    public int width{get{return right-left;}}
    public int height{get{return bottom-top;}}
}

public static class NativeMethods
{
    [DllImport("user32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto, SetLastError = true)]
    public static extern int GetWindowTextLength(IntPtr hWnd);

    [DllImport("user32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto, SetLastError = true)]
    public static extern int GetWindowText(IntPtr hWnd, StringBuilder lpString, int nMaxCount);

    [DllImport("user32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto, SetLastError = true)]
    public static extern int GetClassName(IntPtr hWnd, StringBuilder lpClassName, int nMaxCount);

    [DllImport("user32.dll",SetLastError = true)]
    public static extern int GetWindowInfo(IntPtr hwnd, ref WINDOWINFO pwi);


    [DllImport("user32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
    public static extern int GetWindowThreadProcessId(IntPtr hWnd, out int lpdwProcessId);


    [DllImport("user32.dll",SetLastError = true)]
    public static extern IntPtr WindowFromPoint(POINT point);


    [DllImport("user32.dll",SetLastError = true)]
    public static extern IntPtr GetAncestor(IntPtr hWnd, uint gaFlags);
    public const uint GA_PARENT    = 1;
    public const uint GA_ROOT      = 2;
    public const uint GA_ROOTOWNER = 3; // 複数windowを持つ場合は、そのownerが返る


    public delegate bool EnumWindowsDelegate(IntPtr hWnd, IntPtr lparam);

    [DllImport("user32.dll")]
    [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
    public extern static bool EnumWindows(EnumWindowsDelegate lpEnumFunc,   IntPtr lparam);


    [DllImport("user32.dll")]
    [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
    public static extern bool EnumChildWindows(IntPtr handle, EnumWindowsDelegate enumProc, IntPtr lParam);


    [DllImport("user32.dll")]
    [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
    public static extern bool GetCursorPos(out POINT lpPoint);
}

public class TopLevelWindowInfo
{
    IntPtr _hWnd;
    string _className;
    string _windowText;
    WINDOWINFO _wi;
    int _pid;

    public IntPtr hWnd        {get{return _hWnd;}}
    public string className   {get{return _className;}}
    public string windowText  {get{return _windowText;}}
    public int    windowStatus{get{return _wi.dwWindowStatus;}}
    public int    left        {get{return _wi.rcWindow.left;}}
    public int    top         {get{return _wi.rcWindow.top;}}
    public int    width       {get{return _wi.rcWindow.width;}}
    public int    height      {get{return _wi.rcWindow.height;}}

    public int    clientLeft  {get{return _wi.rcClient.left;}}
    public int    clientTop   {get{return _wi.rcClient.top;}}
    public int    clientWidth {get{return _wi.rcClient.width;}}
    public int    clientHeight{get{return _wi.rcClient.height;}}

    public int    windowStyle {get{return _wi.dwStyle;}}
    public int    pid         {get{return _pid;}}

    public TopLevelWindowInfo(IntPtr hWnd)
    {
        int retCode;

        _hWnd = hWnd;
        _className = MyWin32Util.MyGetClassName(_hWnd, out retCode);
        _windowText = MyWin32Util.MyGetWindowText(_hWnd, out retCode);

        _wi = MyWin32Util.MyGetWindowInfo(_hWnd, out retCode);
        if ( retCode == 0 ) {
            Console.WriteLine("GetWindowInfo returns 0.");
        }

        NativeMethods.GetWindowThreadProcessId(_hWnd, out _pid);
    }


    const int WS_VISIBLE = 0x10000000;
    const int WS_ICONIC  = 0x20000000;

    public bool IsVisibleWindow()
    {
        if ((_wi.dwStyle & WS_VISIBLE) == 0) return false;
        if ((_wi.dwStyle & WS_ICONIC) == WS_ICONIC) return false;
        if ( width <= 0 || height <= 0 ) return false;

        return true;
    }
}


public class SubForm:Form
{
    IntPtr _hWnd;

    SplitContainer spl;
    TreeView trv;
    ListView lsvProperty;
    CheckBox chkMethod;

    Stack<TreeNode> stackWork;

    public SubForm(IntPtr hWnd)
    {
        _hWnd = hWnd;
        Text = hWnd.ToString("X8");

        ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(600,500);

        chkMethod = new CheckBox();
        chkMethod.Appearance = Appearance.Button;
        chkMethod.Width = 150;
        chkMethod.Text = "use UIAutomation method";
        chkMethod.Click += (sender,e)=>{ChkMethod_Click();};
        Controls.Add(chkMethod);

        spl = new SplitContainer();
        spl.Top = chkMethod.Bottom;
        spl.Orientation = Orientation.Horizontal; // .Vertical;
        spl.SplitterDistance = 300;
        Controls.Add(spl);

        trv = new TreeView();
        trv.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        trv.AfterSelect += (sender,e)=>{Trv_AfterSelect();};
        spl.Panel1.Controls.Add(trv);

        lsvProperty = new ListView();
        lsvProperty.View = View.Details;
        lsvProperty.FullRowSelect = true;
        lsvProperty.GridLines = true;
        lsvProperty.Columns.Add("Item",  100, HorizontalAlignment.Left);
        lsvProperty.Columns.Add("Value", 400, HorizontalAlignment.Left);
        lsvProperty.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        spl.Panel2.Controls.Add(lsvProperty);


        CreateHWndTreeByWin32Api();

        Load      += (sender,e)=>{MyResize();}; 
        Resize    += (sender,e)=>{MyResize();};
        ResizeEnd += (sender,e)=>{MyResize();};
    }

    private void MyResize()
    {
        int h = ClientSize.Height - spl.Top;
        if ( h < 10 ) {
            h = 10;
        }
        spl.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(ClientSize.Width, h);
    }

    private void ChkMethod_Click()
    {
        if ( chkMethod.Checked ) {
            CreateHWndTreeByUIAutomation();
        }
        else {
            CreateHWndTreeByWin32Api();
        }
    }

    private void Trv_AfterSelect()
    {
        TreeNode node = trv.SelectedNode;
        int retCode;

        lsvProperty.BeginUpdate();
        try {
            lsvProperty.Items.Clear();
            if ( node.Tag is Automation.AutomationElement ) {
                var elem = (Automation.AutomationElement)node.Tag;
                var elemInfo = elem.Current;
                System.Windows.Rect rect = elemInfo.BoundingRectangle; // needs assembly "WindowsBase.dll"

                // https://docs.microsoft.com/ja-jp/dotnet/api/system.windows.automation.automationelement.automationelementinformation?view=netframework-4.8

                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"Name",         elemInfo.Name}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"LocalizedControlType",  elemInfo.LocalizedControlType}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"AutomationId", elemInfo.AutomationId}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"IsOffscreen",  elemInfo.IsOffscreen.ToString()}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"X",       rect.X.ToString()}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"Y",       rect.Y.ToString()}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"Width",   rect.Width.ToString()}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"Height",  rect.Height.ToString()}));
            }
            else {
                IntPtr hWnd = (IntPtr)node.Tag;
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"HWND", "0x"+hWnd.ToString("X8")}));
                lsvProperty.Items.Add(new ListViewItem(new string[]{"WindowText", MyWin32Util.MyGetWindowText(hWnd, out retCode)}));
            }
        }
        finally {
            lsvProperty.EndUpdate();
        }
    }

    private static TreeNode MakeTreeNode(IntPtr hWnd)
    {
        string className;
        int retCode;

        className = MyWin32Util.MyGetClassName(hWnd, out retCode);

        TreeNode node = new TreeNode(className);
        node.Tag = hWnd;
        return node;
    }

    private static TreeNode MakeTreeNodeAutomation(Automation.AutomationElement elem)
    {
        var elemInfo = elem.Current; // AutomationElementInformation

        TreeNode node;
        if ( String.IsNullOrEmpty(elemInfo.ClassName) ) {
            node = new TreeNode("<<NO CLASSNAME>>");
        }
        else {
            node = new TreeNode(elemInfo.ClassName);
        }
        node.Tag = elem;
        return node;
    }

    private void CreateHWndTreeByWin32Api()
    {
        stackWork = new Stack<TreeNode>();
        trv.BeginUpdate();
        try {
            trv.Nodes.Clear();
            TreeNode rootNode = MakeTreeNode(_hWnd);
            trv.Nodes.Add(rootNode);
            stackWork.Push(rootNode);
            NativeMethods.EnumChildWindows(_hWnd, EnumChildWindowCallBack, IntPtr.Zero);
        }
        finally {
            trv.EndUpdate();
            stackWork = null;
        }
        trv.ExpandAll();
    }

    private bool EnumChildWindowCallBack(IntPtr hWnd, IntPtr lparam)
    {
        TreeNode node = stackWork.Peek();
        TreeNode childNode = MakeTreeNode(hWnd);
        node.Nodes.Add(childNode);

        stackWork.Push(childNode);
        NativeMethods.EnumChildWindows(hWnd, EnumChildWindowCallBack, IntPtr.Zero);
        stackWork.Pop();
        return true;        //すべてのウィンドウを列挙する
    }

    private void CreateHWndTreeByUIAutomation()
    {
        stackWork = new Stack<TreeNode>();
        trv.BeginUpdate();
        try {
            trv.Nodes.Clear();
//            TreeNode rootNode = MakeTreeNode(_hWnd);
            var elem = Automation.AutomationElement.FromHandle(_hWnd);
            TreeNode rootNode = MakeTreeNodeAutomation(elem);
            trv.Nodes.Add(rootNode);
            stackWork.Push(rootNode);

//            EnumChildByUIAutomation(Automation.AutomationElement.FromHandle(_hWnd));
            EnumChildByUIAutomation(elem);
        }
        finally {
            trv.EndUpdate();
            stackWork = null;
        }
        trv.ExpandAll();
    }

    private void EnumChildByUIAutomation(Automation.AutomationElement elem)
    {
        TreeNode node = stackWork.Peek();
        var childElements = elem.FindAll(Automation.TreeScope.Children, Automation.Condition.TrueCondition);

        foreach(Automation.AutomationElement childElem in childElements) {
            TreeNode childNode = MakeTreeNodeAutomation(childElem);
            node.Nodes.Add(childNode);

            stackWork.Push(childNode);
            EnumChildByUIAutomation(childElem);
            stackWork.Pop();
        }
    }
}


public class MainForm:Form
{
    public enum LsvSortAttr {
        ByNumeric,
        ByHex,
        ByString
    };

    System.Windows.Forms.Timer timer;
    Button   btnRefresh;
    Button   btnPeriodicRefresh;
    CheckBox chkShowInvisibleWindow;
    ListView lsv;
    List<TopLevelWindowInfo> wndInfos;
    List<LsvSortAttr> SortOrderIdent;


    MainForm()
    {
        wndInfos = new List<TopLevelWindowInfo>();

        Text = "Listup Window Handles";
        SortOrderIdent = new List<LsvSortAttr>();
        ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(700,530);

        Shown += (sender,e)=>{EnumWndUpdateList();};
        Resize    += (sender,e)=>{MyResizeHandler();};
        ResizeEnd += (sender,e)=>{MyResizeHandler();};

        btnRefresh = new Button();
        btnRefresh.Text = "Refresh";
        btnRefresh.Click += (sender,e)=>{EnumWndUpdateList();};
        Controls.Add(btnRefresh);

        btnPeriodicRefresh = new Button();
        btnPeriodicRefresh.Left = 100;
        btnPeriodicRefresh.Text = "Auto";
        btnPeriodicRefresh.Click += (sender,e)=>
        {
            if ( timer==null || !timer.Enabled ) {
                btnPeriodicRefresh.Text = "Stop";
                StartTimer();
            }
            else {
                btnPeriodicRefresh.Text = "Auto";
                StopTimer();
            }
        };
        Controls.Add(btnPeriodicRefresh);


        chkShowInvisibleWindow = new CheckBox();
        chkShowInvisibleWindow.Left = 200;
        chkShowInvisibleWindow.Text = "ShowInvisible";
        chkShowInvisibleWindow.Click += (sender,e)=>{UpdateListControl();}; // 取得済みデータをフィルタするのは面倒なので 再取得
        Controls.Add(chkShowInvisibleWindow);


        lsv = new ListView();
        lsv.Location = new Point(0,30);
        lsv.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(700,500);
        lsv.View = View.Details;
        lsv.FullRowSelect = true;
        lsv.GridLines = true;
        lsv.Columns.Add("No"         , 35, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("HWND"       , 70, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByHex);
        lsv.Columns.Add("PID"        , 50, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("ClassName"  ,150, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByString);
        lsv.Columns.Add("WindowText" ,150, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByString);
        lsv.Columns.Add("Left"       , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("Top"        , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("Width"      , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("Height"     , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("cLeft"      , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("cTop"       , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("cWidth"     , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("cHeight"    , 45, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric);
        lsv.Columns.Add("Style"      , 70, HorizontalAlignment.Left);SortOrderIdent.Add(LsvSortAttr.ByHex);
        lsv.ColumnClick += (sender,e)=>{Lsv_ColumnClick(e);};
        lsv.DoubleClick += (sender,e)=>{Lsv_DoubleClick(e);};
        Controls.Add(lsv);
    }

    void MyResizeHandler()
    {
        lsv.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(ClientSize.Width, ClientSize.Height - lsv.Top);
    }

    void Lsv_ColumnClick(ColumnClickEventArgs e)
    {
        if ( e.Column >= 0 && e.Column < lsv.Columns.Count ) {
            lsv.ListViewItemSorter = new ListViewItemComparer(e.Column, SortOrderIdent[e.Column]);
        }
        else {
            Console.WriteLine("Out of column index");
        }
    }

    void Lsv_DoubleClick(EventArgs e)
    {
        var indices = lsv.SelectedIndices;

        if ( indices.Count == 1 ) {
            var a = (TopLevelWindowInfo)(lsv.Items[indices[0]].Tag);
            Form subForm = new SubForm(a.hWnd);
            subForm.ShowDialog();
        }
    }

    public class ListViewItemComparer : IComparer
    {
        private int _column;
        private LsvSortAttr _sortAttr;

        public ListViewItemComparer(int col, LsvSortAttr sortAttr)
        {
            _column   = col;
            _sortAttr = sortAttr;
        }

        private int CompareInt64(Int64 a, Int64 b)
        {
            if(a<b){return -1;}
            if(a>b){return  1;}
            return 0;
        }

        public int Compare(object obj1, object obj2)
        {
            string s1 = ((ListViewItem)obj1).SubItems[_column].Text;
            string s2 = ((ListViewItem)obj2).SubItems[_column].Text;

            if ( _sortAttr == LsvSortAttr.ByNumeric ) {
                Int64 n1;
                Int64 n2;
                try {
                    n1 = Convert.ToInt64(s1);
                    n2 = Convert.ToInt64(s2);
                    return CompareInt64(n1, n2);
                }
                catch(Exception e){Console.WriteLine(e);} // catchしたら文字列比較へ
            }
            else if ( _sortAttr == LsvSortAttr.ByHex ) {
                // 未実装.. とりあえず文字列比較
            }
            return string.Compare(s1, s2);
        }
    }

    public ListViewItem ConvertToListViewItem(int index, TopLevelWindowInfo a)
    {
        var ss = new string[]
        {
            index.ToString(),
            a.hWnd.ToString("X8"),
            a.pid.ToString(),
            a.className,
            a.windowText,
            a.left.ToString(),
            a.top.ToString(),
            a.width.ToString(),
            a.height.ToString(),
            a.clientLeft.ToString(),
            a.clientTop.ToString(),
            a.clientWidth.ToString(),
            a.clientHeight.ToString(),
            a.windowStyle.ToString("X8")
        };

        var t = new ListViewItem(ss);
        t.Tag = a;
        return t;
    }

    void StartTimer()
    {
        timer = new System.Windows.Forms.Timer();
        timer.Interval = 2000;
        timer.Tick += (sender,e)=>{EnumWndUpdateList();};
        timer.Start();
    }

    void StopTimer()
    {
        if ( timer != null ) {
            timer.Stop();
        }
    }

    void EnumWndUpdateList()
    {
        wndInfos = new List<TopLevelWindowInfo>();

        //ウィンドウを列挙する
        NativeMethods.EnumWindows(EnumWindowCallBack, IntPtr.Zero);

        UpdateListControl();

        var p = new POINT();
        NativeMethods.GetCursorPos(out p);
        IntPtr hWnd = NativeMethods.WindowFromPoint( p );
        IntPtr hWndRoot = IntPtr.Zero;

        if ( hWnd != IntPtr.Zero ) {
            hWndRoot = NativeMethods.GetAncestor(hWnd, NativeMethods.GA_ROOT);
        }

        Console.Write("HWND on cursor = 0x");
        Console.WriteLine(((int)hWndRoot).ToString("X8"));
    }


    void UpdateListControl()
    {
        bool showInvisWnd = chkShowInvisibleWindow.Checked;

        lsv.Items.Clear();
        lsv.BeginUpdate();
        try {
            int itemNo=0;
            foreach ( var t in wndInfos ) {
                itemNo++;
                if ( showInvisWnd || t.IsVisibleWindow() ) {
                    lsv.Items.Add(ConvertToListViewItem(itemNo, t));
                }
            }
        }
        finally {
            lsv.EndUpdate();
        }
    }

    [STAThread]
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        Application.Run(new MainForm());
    }

    private bool EnumWindowCallBack(IntPtr hWnd, IntPtr lparam)
    {
        wndInfos.Add(new TopLevelWindowInfo(hWnd));
        return true;        //すべてのウィンドウを列挙する
    }
}

kob58im
趣味でC#で色々試してます。 置いてるほとんどのC#サンプルコードは、Windows7以降デフォで入ってる環境でコンパイルできます。 最近はCodePen使ってJavaScriptも書いてます。
Why not register and get more from Qiita?
  1. We will deliver articles that match you
    By following users and tags, you can catch up information on technical fields that you are interested in as a whole
  2. you can read useful information later efficiently
    By "stocking" the articles you like, you can search right away