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mattnさんqiita-vimをお使い下さい
http://qiita.com/items/4b31a7ecd0a1fd761fe1

qiita.vim
scriptencoding utf-8

let s:save_cpo = &cpo
set cpo&vim

command! -nargs=1 QiitaPost call s:QiitaPost(<f-args>, 0)

if !exists('g:qiita_user')
    let g:qiita_user = ''
endif

let s:qiita_base_url = 'https://qiita.com/api/v1/'

function! s:QiitaAuth()
    if !strlen(g:qiita_user)
        let qiita_user = input('Qiita user :')
    else
        let qiita_user = g:qiita_user
    endif
    return s:QiitaAuthWithUser(qiita_user)
endfunction

function! s:QiitaAuthWithUser(user)
    let g:qiita_user = a:user

    let password = inputsecret("Qiita Password for ".g:qiita_user.":")
    if !len(password)
        echo 'Canceled'
        return []
    endif

    redraw | echon 'Posting it to qiita... '
    let res = webapi#http#post(s:qiita_base_url . 'auth' . '?url_name=' . g:qiita_user . '&password=' . password)

    let status = matchstr(matchstr(res.header, '^Status:'), '^[^:]\+: \zs.*')
    if status =~ '^2'
    let obj = webapi#json#decode(res.content)
        return obj["token"]
    else
        echoerr 'Auth failed'
    endif
endfunction

function! s:QiitaPost(title, private)
    if !exists('g:qiita_token')
        let g:qiita_token = s:QiitaAuth()
        if !len(g:qiita_token)
            return
        endif
    endif

    " Get current buffer
    let content = join(getline(1, line('$')), "\n")

    " Get current filename
    let filename = expand('%:t')
    if filename == ''
    let filename = 'hoge'
    end

    let ext = '.' . fnamemodify(filename, ':e')
    let tags = []
    if has_key(s:extmap, ext)
      let type = s:extmap[ext]
    else
      let type = "hoge"
    end
    call add(tags, {"name": type})

    let obj = { "title": a:title, "body": s:MarkDownWrap(filename, type, content), "tags": tags, "private": function('webapi#json#false')}
    if a:private | let obj["private"] = function('webapi#json#true') | endif

    let header = {"Content-Type": "application/json"}
    let res = webapi#http#post(s:qiita_base_url . 'items'. '?token=' . g:qiita_token, webapi#json#encode(obj), header)

    let status = matchstr(matchstr(res.header, '^Status:'), '^[^:]\+: \zs.*')
    if status =~ '^2'
    let obj = webapi#json#decode(res.content)
        echo 'Done: uuid=' . obj["uuid"]
    return obj["uuid"]
    else
        echoerr 'Post failed'
    endif
endfunction

function! s:MarkDownWrap(filename, type, content)
  return "\n``` " . a:type . ":" . a:filename . "\n" . a:content . "\n```\n"
endfunction

let s:extmap = {
      \".adb": "ada",
      \".ahk": "ahk",
      \".arc": "arc",
      \".as": "actionscript",
      \".asm": "asm",
      \".asp": "asp",
      \".aw": "php",
      \".b": "b",
      \".bat": "bat",
      \".befunge": "befunge",
      \".bmx": "bmx",
      \".boo": "boo",
      \".c-objdump": "c-objdump",
      \".c": "c",
      \".cfg": "cfg",
      \".cfm": "cfm",
      \".ck": "ck",
      \".cl": "cl",
      \".clj": "clj",
      \".cmake": "cmake",
      \".coffee": "coffee",
      \".cpp": "cpp",
      \".cppobjdump": "cppobjdump",
      \".cs": "csharp",
      \".css": "css",
      \".cw": "cw",
      \".d-objdump": "d-objdump",
      \".d": "d",
      \".darcspatch": "darcspatch",
      \".diff": "diff",
      \".duby": "duby",
      \".dylan": "dylan",
      \".e": "e",
      \".ebuild": "ebuild",
      \".eclass": "eclass",
      \".el": "lisp",
      \".erb": "erb",
      \".erl": "erlang",
      \".f90": "f90",
      \".factor": "factor",
      \".feature": "feature",
      \".fs": "fs",
      \".fy": "fy",
      \".go": "go",
      \".groovy": "groovy",
      \".gs": "gs",
      \".gsp": "gsp",
      \".haml": "haml",
      \".hs": "haskell",
      \".html": "html",
      \".hx": "hx",
      \".ik": "ik",
      \".ino": "ino",
      \".io": "io",
      \".j": "j",
      \".java": "java",
      \".js": "javascript",
      \".json": "json",
      \".jsp": "jsp",
      \".kid": "kid",
      \".lhs": "lhs",
      \".lisp": "lisp",
      \".ll": "ll",
      \".lua": "lua",
      \".ly": "ly",
      \".m": "objc",
      \".mak": "mak",
      \".man": "man",
      \".mao": "mao",
      \".matlab": "matlab",
      \".md": "markdown",
      \".minid": "minid",
      \".ml": "ml",
      \".moo": "moo",
      \".mu": "mu",
      \".mustache": "mustache",
      \".mxt": "mxt",
      \".myt": "myt",
      \".n": "n",
      \".nim": "nim",
      \".nu": "nu",
      \".numpy": "numpy",
      \".objdump": "objdump",
      \".ooc": "ooc",
      \".parrot": "parrot",
      \".pas": "pas",
      \".pasm": "pasm",
      \".pd": "pd",
      \".phtml": "phtml",
      \".pir": "pir",
      \".pl": "perl",
      \".po": "po",
      \".py": "python",
      \".pytb": "pytb",
      \".pyx": "pyx",
      \".r": "r",
      \".raw": "raw",
      \".rb": "ruby",
      \".rhtml": "rhtml",
      \".rkt": "rkt",
      \".rs": "rs",
      \".rst": "rst",
      \".s": "s",
      \".sass": "sass",
      \".sc": "sc",
      \".scala": "scala",
      \".scm": "scheme",
      \".scpt": "scpt",
      \".scss": "scss",
      \".self": "self",
      \".sh": "sh",
      \".sml": "sml",
      \".sql": "sql",
      \".st": "smalltalk",
      \".tcl": "tcl",
      \".tcsh": "tcsh",
      \".tex": "tex",
      \".textile": "textile",
      \".tpl": "smarty",
      \".twig": "twig",
      \".txt" : "text",
      \".v": "verilog",
      \".vala": "vala",
      \".vb": "vbnet",
      \".vhd": "vhdl",
      \".vim": "vim",
      \".weechatlog": "weechatlog",
      \".xml": "xml",
      \".xq": "xquery",
      \".xs": "xs",
      \".yml": "yaml",
      \}

let &cpo = s:save_cpo
unlet s:save_cpo

下記を参考に作りました。
https://github.com/mattn/gist-vim
https://github.com/motemen/hatena-vim

webapi-vimが必要です。
https://github.com/mattn/webapi-vim
commandも記述してしまってるのでpluginにコピペすれば動くと思います。