vector

Vectors are sequence containers representing arrays that can change in size.
Just like arrays, vectors use contiguous storage locations for their elements, which means that their elements can also be accessed using offsets on regular pointers to its elements, and just as efficiently as in arrays. But unlike arrays, their size can change dynamically, with their storage being handled automatically by the container.

// vector::size
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

int main ()
{
  std::vector<int> myints;
  std::cout << "0. size: " << myints.size() << '\n';

  for (int i=0; i<10; i++) myints.push_back(i);
  std::cout << "1. size: " << myints.size() << '\n';

  myints.insert (myints.end(),10,100);
  std::cout << "2. size: " << myints.size() << '\n';

  myints.pop_back();
  std::cout << "3. size: " << myints.size() << '\n';

  return 0;
}

iostream

Basic i/o library in C++.

cstdlib

This header defines several general purpose functions, including dynamic memory management, random number generation, communication with the environment, integer arithmetics, searching, sorting and converting.

/* atof example: sine calculator */
#include <stdio.h>      /* printf, fgets */
#include <stdlib.h>     /* atof */
#include <math.h>       /* sin */

int main ()
{
  double n,m;
  double pi=3.1415926535;
  char buffer[256];
  printf("Enter degrees: ");
  fgets(buffer,256,stdin);
  n = atof(buffer);
  m = sin(n*pi/180);
  printf("The sine of %f degrees is %f\n" , n, m);
  return 0;
}

cassert

assert.h defines one macro function that can be used as a standard debugging tool

/* assert example */
#include <stdio.h>      /* printf */
#include <assert.h>     /* assert */

void print_number(int* myInt) {
  assert (myInt!=NULL);
  printf ("%d\n",*myInt);
}

int main ()
{
  int a=10;
  int * b = NULL;
  int * c = NULL;

  b=&a;

  print_number (b);
  print_number (c);

  return 0;
}

cmath

Header declares a set of functions to compute common mathematical operations and transformations

/* cos example */
#include <stdio.h>      /* printf */
#include <math.h>       /* cos */

#define PI 3.14159265

int main ()
{
  double param, result;
  param = 60.0;
  result = cos ( param * PI / 180.0 );
  printf ("The cosine of %f degrees is %f.\n", param, result );
  return 0;
}

fstream

Objects of this class maintain a filebuf object as their internal stream buffer, which performs input/output operations on the file they are associated with (if any).
File streams are associated with files either on construction, or by calling member open.

// fstream::open / fstream::close
#include <fstream>      // std::fstream

int main () {

  std::fstream fs;
  fs.open ("test.txt", std::fstream::in | std::fstream::out | std::fstream::app);

  fs << " more lorem ipsum";

  fs.close();

  return 0;
}

sstream

Objects of this class use a string buffer that contains a sequence of characters. This sequence of characters can be accessed directly as a string object, using member str.
Characters can be inserted and/or extracted from the stream using any operation allowed on both input and output streams.

// read a file into memory
#include <iostream>     // std::cout
#include <fstream>      // std::ifstream

int main () {

  std::ifstream is ("test.txt", std::ifstream::binary);
  if (is) {
    // get length of file:
    is.seekg (0, is.end);
    int length = is.tellg();
    is.seekg (0, is.beg);

    char * buffer = new char [length];

    std::cout << "Reading " << length << " characters... ";
    // read data as a block:
    is.read (buffer,length);

    if (is)
      std::cout << "all characters read successfully.";
    else
      std::cout << "error: only " << is.gcount() << " could be read";
    is.close();

    // ...buffer contains the entire file...

    delete[] buffer;
  }
  return 0;
}
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