Python + NumPy で SMO 実装した

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この記事は最終更新日から1年以上が経過しています。

Python + NumPy だけで,本気で速度を追求した SVM を書いてみた.
アルゴリズムは LIVSVM のドキュメント関連論文に倣って色々と工夫を取り入れた SMO.

Working set の選択 (各反復で部分問題に使う 2 変数を選ぶアレ) は実装のし易さを優先して少し古い手法 (LIBSVM ver. 2.8 くらいまで使われていたやつ) を採用したが,新しいやつが必ずしも速い保証はないしまあ良いかなという感じ.

ソースコード

本当は一人で楽しむ予定だったけれど,案外実用レベルの速度が出たので皆と喜びを分かち合うことにした.

でも,アルゴリズムの説明を書くとめっちゃ長くなりそうなので,ひとまず妥協してコードだけ貼ることにした.
まだ実装できていない機能が沢山あるけど,基本的に使い方は scikit-learn とほぼ同じになっているはず.

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import numpy as np


def linear_kernel(x1, x2):
    x1 = np.atleast_2d(x1)
    x2 = np.atleast_2d(x2)
    return np.dot(x1, x2.T)


# k(x, y) = exp(- gamma || x1 - x2 ||^2)
def get_rbf_kernel(gamma):
    def rbf_kernel(x1, x2):
        x1 = np.atleast_2d(x1)
        x2 = np.atleast_2d(x2)
        m1, _ = x1.shape
        m2, _ = x2.shape
        norm1 = np.dot(np.ones([m2, 1]), np.atleast_2d(np.sum(x1 ** 2, axis=1))).T
        norm2 = np.dot(np.ones([m1, 1]), np.atleast_2d(np.sum(x2 ** 2, axis=1)))
        return np.exp(- gamma * (norm1 + norm2 - 2 * np.dot(x1, x2.T)))
    return rbf_kernel


# k(x1, x2) = (<x1, x2> + coef0)^degree
def get_polynomial_kernel(degree, coef0):
    def polynomial_kernel(x1, x2):
        x1 = np.atleast_2d(x1)
        x2 = np.atleast_2d(x2)
        return (np.dot(x1, x2.T) + coef0)**degree
    return polynomial_kernel


class CSvc:

    def __init__(self, C=1e0, kernel=linear_kernel, tol=1e-3, max_iter=1000,
                 gamma=1e0, degree=3, coef0=0):
        self._EPS = 1e-5
        self._TAU = 1e-12
        self._cache = {}
        self.tol = tol
        self.max_iter = max_iter
        self.C = C
        self.gamma = gamma
        self.degree, self.coef0 = degree, coef0
        self.kernel = None
        self._alpha = None
        self.intercept_ = None
        self._grad = None
        self.itr = None
        self._ind_y_p, self._ind_y_n = None, None
        self._i_low, self._i_up = None, None
        self.set_kernel_function(kernel)

    def _init_solution(self, y):
        num = len(y)
        self._alpha = np.zeros(num)
        self._i_low = y < 0
        self._i_up = y > 0

    def set_kernel_function(self, kernel):
        if callable(kernel):
            self.kernel = kernel
        elif kernel == 'linear':
            self.kernel = linear_kernel
        elif kernel == 'rbf' or kernel == 'gaussian':
            self.kernel = get_rbf_kernel(self.gamma)
        elif kernel == 'polynomial' or kernel == 'poly':
            self.kernel = get_polynomial_kernel(self.degree, self.coef0)
        else:
            raise ValueError('{} is undefined name as kernel function'.format(kernel))

    def _select_working_set1(self, y):
        minus_y_times_grad = - y * self._grad
        # Convert boolean mask to index
        i_up = self._i_up.nonzero()[0]
        i_low = self._i_low.nonzero()[0]
        ind_ws1 = i_up[np.argmax(minus_y_times_grad[i_up])]
        ind_ws2 = i_low[np.argmin(minus_y_times_grad[i_low])]
        return ind_ws1, ind_ws2

    def fit(self, x, y):
        self._init_solution(y)
        self._cache = {}
        num, _ = x.shape
        # Initialize the dual coefficients and gradient
        self._grad = - np.ones(num)
        # Start the iterations of SMO algorithm
        for itr in xrange(self.max_iter):
            # Select two indices of variables as working set
            ind_ws1, ind_ws2 = self._select_working_set1(y)
            # Check stopping criteria: m(a_k) <= M(a_k) + tolerance
            m_lb = - y[ind_ws1] * self._grad[ind_ws1]
            m_ub = - y[ind_ws2] * self._grad[ind_ws2]
            kkt_violation = m_lb - m_ub
            # print 'KKT Violation:', kkt_violation
            if kkt_violation <= self.tol:
                print 'Converged!', 'Iter:', itr, 'KKT Violation:', kkt_violation
                break
            # Compute (or get from cache) two columns of gram matrix
            if ind_ws1 in self._cache:
                qi = self._cache[ind_ws1]
            else:
                qi = self.kernel(x, x[ind_ws1]).ravel() * y * y[ind_ws1]
                self._cache[ind_ws1] = qi
            if ind_ws2 in self._cache:
                qj = self._cache[ind_ws2]
            else:
                qj = self.kernel(x, x[ind_ws2]).ravel() * y * y[ind_ws2]
                self._cache[ind_ws2] = qj
            # Construct sub-problem
            qii, qjj, qij = qi[ind_ws1], qj[ind_ws2], qi[ind_ws2]
            # Solve sub-problem
            if y[ind_ws1] * y[ind_ws2] > 0:  # The case where y_i equals y_j
                v1, v2 = 1., -1.
                d_max = min(self.C - self._alpha[ind_ws1], self._alpha[ind_ws2])
                d_min = max(-self._alpha[ind_ws1], self._alpha[ind_ws2] - self.C)
            else:  # The case where y_i equals y_j
                v1, v2 = 1., 1.
                d_max = min(self.C - self._alpha[ind_ws1], self.C - self._alpha[ind_ws2])
                d_min = max(-self._alpha[ind_ws1], -self._alpha[ind_ws2])
            quad_coef = v1**2 * qii + v2**2 * qjj + 2 * v1 * v2 * qij
            quad_coef = max(quad_coef, self._TAU)
            d = - (self._grad[ind_ws1] * v1 + self._grad[ind_ws2] * v2) / quad_coef
            d = max(min(d, d_max), d_min)
            # Update dual coefficients
            self._alpha[ind_ws1] += d * v1
            self._alpha[ind_ws2] += d * v2
            # Update the gradient
            self._grad += d * v1 * qi + d * v2 * qj
            # Update I_up with respect to ind_ws1 and ind_ws2
            self._update_iup_and_ilow(y, ind_ws1)
            self._update_iup_and_ilow(y, ind_ws2)
        else:
            print 'Exceed maximum iteration'
            print 'KKT Violation:', kkt_violation
        # Set results after optimization procedure
        self._set_result(x, y)
        self.intercept_ = (m_lb + m_ub) / 2.
        self.itr = itr + 1

    def _update_iup_and_ilow(self, y, ind):
        # Update I_up with respect to ind
        if (y[ind] > 0) and (self._alpha[ind] / self.C <= 1 - self._EPS):
            self._i_up[ind] = True
        elif (y[ind] < 0) and (self._EPS <= self._alpha[ind] / self.C):
            self._i_up[ind] = True
        else:
            self._i_up[ind] = False
        # Update I_low with respect to ind
        if (y[ind] > 0) and (self._EPS <= self._alpha[ind] / self.C):
            self._i_low[ind] = True
        elif (y[ind] < 0) and (self._alpha[ind] / self.C <= 1 - self._EPS):
            self._i_low[ind] = True
        else:
            self._i_low[ind] = False

    def _set_result(self, x, y):
        self.support_ = np.where(self._EPS < (self._alpha / self.C))[0]
        self.support_vectors_ = x[self.support_]
        self.dual_coef_ = self._alpha[self.support_] * y[self.support_]
        # Compute w when using linear kernel
        if self.kernel == linear_kernel:
            self.coef_ = np.sum(self.dual_coef_ * x[self.support_].T, axis=1)

    def decision_function(self, x):
        return np.sum(self.kernel(x, self.support_vectors_) * self.dual_coef_, axis=1) + self.intercept_

    def predict(self, x):
        return np.sign(self.decision_function(x))

    def score(self, x, y):
        return sum(self.decision_function(x) * y > 0) / float(len(y))


if __name__ == '__main__':
    # Create toy problem
    np.random.seed(0)
    num_p = 15
    num_n = 15
    dim = 2
    x_p = np.random.multivariate_normal(np.ones(dim) * 1, np.eye(dim), num_p)
    x_n = np.random.multivariate_normal(np.ones(dim) * 2, np.eye(dim), num_n)
    x = np.vstack([x_p, x_n])
    y = np.array([1.] * num_p + [-1.] * num_n)

    # Set parameters
    max_iter = 500000
    C = 1e0
    gamma = 0.005
    tol = 1e-3

    # Set kernel function
    # kernel = get_rbf_kernel(gamma)
    # kernel = linear_kernel
    # kernel = 'rbf'
    # kernel = 'polynomial'
    kernel = 'linear'

    # Create object
    csvc = CSvc(C=C, kernel=kernel, max_iter=max_iter, tol=tol)

    # Run SMO algorithm
    csvc.fit(x, y)

LIBSVM と速度比較してみる

本家 LIBSVM,scikit-learn,自前の実装,の 3 つを 1 回勝負で雑に比べてみた.
使用したのはここのデータセット.

scikit-learn は中身は LIBSVM だけど,Python との繋ぎが本家は ctypes なのに対して scikit-learn は Cython を使っているとか何とか?
詳しいことはあんまり知らない.

使ったのは linear kernel で,表の数値の単位は sec.

自前実装 scikit-learn LIBSVM
mushrooms 0.374 0.320 0.907
a1a 0.729 0.332 0.663
diabetes 0.0795 0.015 0.0451
liver 0.0243 0.0031 0.0109
splice 2.28 0.49 1.10
svmguide3 0.175 0.483 0.148

本家 LIBSVM にはかなり迫っているが,scikit-learn の謎の速さよ.
それでも Python + NumPy だけでガチ環境 (?) に耐え得る速度が出せている感じがするので結構頑張ったと思う.

まとめ

  • これをベースに SVM を拡張したアルゴリズム色々書きたい
  • まだ速くしたい
  • Python でも結構頑張れるっぽいので皆で頑張ろう